“Abnormalities of the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (


“Abnormalities of the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) and the limbic-cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical selleckchem (LCSTC) circuits have been hypothesized in mood disorders. We performed principal component analysis (PCA) to identify latent volumetric systems on regional brain volumes and correlated these patterns with clinical characteristics; further, we performed exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) to testa priori hypotheses about the organization among the structures comprising the CSTC and LCSTC circuits, and to investigate differences among subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy controls (HC). Participants included 45

BD and 31 MDD patients, and 72 HC. Regional MR brain volumes were used to calculate patterns of volumetric covariance. The identified see more latent volumetric systems were related to the depression severity and the duration of illness. BD differed from HC on

the estimated parameters describing the paths of cortico-striatal, thalamo-striatal and intrastriatal loops of the CSTC circuit, and the paths between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and hippocampus to amygdala of the LCSTC circuit. MDD differed from HC on the paths between putamen and thalamus, and PCC to hippocampus. This study provides evidence to suggest different organizational patterns among structures within the CSTC and LCSTC circuits for BD. MDD, and HC, which may point to structural abnormalities underlying mood disorders. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The survival rate of freeze-dried cultures is not enough information for technological applications of micro-organisms. There could be serious metabolic/structural damage in the survivors, leading to a delay time that can jeopardize the design of a rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) metabolic-based bioassay. Therefore, we will study the metabolic activity (as ferricyanide reduction activity) and the survival rate (as colony-forming

units, CFU) of different Klebsiella pneumoniae freeze-dried cultures looking for stable metabolic conditions after 35 days of storage.

Method and Results: Here, we tried several simple freeze-drying this website processes of Kl. pneumoniae. Electrochemical measurements of ferrocyanide and survival rates obtained with the different freeze-dried cultures were used to choose the best freeze-drying process that leads to a rapid metabolic-based bioassay.

Conclusions: The use of milk plus monosodium glutamate was the best choice to obtain a Kl. pneumoniae freeze-dried culture with metabolic stable conditions after storage at -20 degrees C without the need of vacuum storage and ready to use after 20 min of rehydration. We also demonstrate that the viability and the metabolic activity are not always directly correlated.

Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that the use of this Kl. pneumoniae freeze-dried culture is appropriate for the design of a rapid BOD bioassay.

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