“Aims: We compared, in New Zealand Maori at risk of type 2

“Aims: We compared, in New Zealand Maori at risk of type 2 diabetes, advice emphasizing fiber rich carbohydrate and fat reduction (HCHF) and a high protein (HP) diet incorporating food preferences of indigenous people, ON-01910 mouse with a control group (CONT).\n\nMethods: Eighty-four participants were randomized to three groups. Consecutive 8 week periods of supervised weight

loss, supervised weight maintenance and unsupervised adherence to the prescribed diet using culturally sensitive methods were employed in intervention groups. Dietary compliance, body composition, blood pressure and metabolic variables were measured.\n\nResults: Body weight was reduced throughout on HP -2.6 (95% confidence interval: -4.4, -0.8) kg and HCHF (-1.6 (-3.0, -0.3) kg) compared with CONT. Total body fat (-1.6 (-3.0, -0.3) kg) and waist circumference (-3.0 (-5.7, -0.2) cm) showed sustained decreases on HP compared with CONT. Diet records suggested reasonable compliance with dietary advice on HP. Carbohydrate intake, but not dietary fiber, increased at the expense of fat on HCHF.\n\nConclusions: While moderate weight loss occurred selleck chemicals on both HP and HCHF, HP was associated with some further favorable differences compared with the control group. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“To examine socioeconomic differences in adolescent alcohol use in Germany as well as their changes between 1994 and 2006.\n\nData were obtained from the “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” study conducted in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. The analysis is based on 5.074 15-year-old students.

Prevalence and trends were analysed for each category of family affluence and educational track separately using log-binominal regression models.\n\nAn increase in weekly alcohol use between 1994 and 2002 was followed by a strong decrease from 2002 to 2006. Family PF-6463922 molecular weight affluence only had a weak effect on weekly drinking with a tendency for lower-affluent students reporting less alcohol use. Educational track showed almost no relationship with weekly alcohol use. Trend analyses within the subgroups revealed that the overall trend in alcohol use was similar in all socioeconomic and educational groups.\n\nSocioeconomic patterns in drinking behaviour are not yet developed in 15-year-old adolescents. Adolescence could therefore be an important time frame for tackling inequalities in alcohol use later in life.”
“In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), succinonitrile, and acrylonitrile.

Comments are closed.