They completed a neurobehavioral test battery: personality invent

They completed a neurobehavioral test battery: personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working

in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult YM155 cost populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Obtaining immediate results makes testing for albuminuria at the point of care far superior to central laboratory assays. Here we determined if a quantitative desk-top system could identify and monitor patients with microalbuminuria. Urinary albumin

excretion was measured in 259 patients of a population

cohort study where they collected 24-h urines and first morning void samples prior to three clinic visits at three week intervals. The albumin concentration was determined Saracatinib clinical trial Fossariinae with both an in-office HemoCue Albumin 201 system and a central laboratory BNII nephelometer. The median (interquartile-range) urinary albumin concentration in the first morning void, intra-individual variability in patients excreting more than 30mg/day and the prediction of microalbuminuria in subsequent 24-h collections measured by each technique were statistically indistinguishable. The HemoCue system met the FDA criterion for precision while being at its border for accuracy. Our study shows that determination of urinary albumin concentration in a first morning void by the HemoCue point-of-care system provides a good alternative to central laboratory analysis identifying and monitoring patients with microalbuminuria.”
“Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported to be associated with children’s neurobehavioral development but there was no studies investigating the genetic susceptibilities to maternal ETS exposure on children’s neurodevelopment. The aim of the study was to explore the modification effect of metabolic gene polymorphisms to cord blood cotinine on children’s neurodevelopment at the 2 years of age. This study is one investigation of the Taiwan Birth Panel Study and a total of 145 pregnant women and their neonates were recruited between April 2004 and January 2005.

After adjusting for age and sex, hazard ratios of MS for cardiova

After adjusting for age and sex, hazard ratios of MS for cardiovascular mortality were 3.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-6.29), 1.56 (0.91-2.68), and 1.17 (0.42-3.22) in patients <= 70, 71-80, and >80 years old, respectively.

Conclusions. MS is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in middle-aged type 2 diabetic patients, and the clinical utility of this category in older

diabetic individuals is questionable.”
“The representation of time, space and numbers are strictly linked in the primate’s cognitive system. Here we show that merely looking at number symbols biases a temporal judgment on their duration depending upon the number’s magnitude. In a first experiment, a group of healthy subjects was submitted to a time estimation task, requiring to judge whether the duration of a test stimulus was longer or shorter than MLN4924 that of

a previous reference fixed stimulus (digit 5; duration 300 ms). Test stimuli buy Savolitinib were the digits 1, 5 and 9 ranging between 250 and 350 ms. The main results showed that temporal perception was biased according to the magnitude expressed by the digit: low digits (i.e. 1) leading to underestimation and high digits (i.e. 9) an overestimation of perceived duration. Control experiments showed that this result was consistent whatever digits were tested but not when letters of the alphabet were used. These findings argue for a functional interaction between time and numbers in the cognitive system. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Worldwide adoption of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative classification for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and widespread use of the estimated glomerular filtration rate to assess renal function

have identified large numbers of patients with previously undiagnosed CKD. It is clear, however, that this is a heterogeneous group and that only a small minority of such patients ever progress Avelestat (AZD9668) to end-stage renal disease. There is thus an urgent need for a simple method of risk assessment that can be applied to all patients with CKD to identify those few at greatest risk. The magnitude of baseline proteinuria has long been recognized as an important predictor of renal prognosis. Furthermore, several studies have found that change in proteinuria after initiation of antihypertensive treatment as well as achieved level of proteinuria correlate with prognosis. Thus, proteinuria has emerged as the single most important marker of renal risk. Many other factors have been identified as risk factors for CKD progression. Several attempts have been made to combine a relatively small number of risk factors into a risk score to predict renal outcomes in specific groups of patients. Validation of these risk scores as well as further studies are now required to develop a renal risk score applicable to a more general population of patients with CKD.

PAM(3)CSK(4) induced only marginal expression of myeloid lineage

PAM(3)CSK(4) induced only marginal expression of myeloid lineage markers on HSCs but promoted their myeloid commitment as revealed by their acquisition of the phenotype of multi-and bipotential KU55933 nmr myeloid progenitors and by upregulation of the transcription factors PU.1, C/EBP alpha and GATA-1. Our results suggest that TLR agonists can bias the lineage commitment of human HSCs and shift the differentiation of lineage-committed progenitors to favor myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphoid B-cell development. Leukemia (2009) 23, 2063-2074; doi: 10.1038/leu.2009.155; published online 30 July 2009″
“Dystrobrevin binding protein-1 gene (DTNBP1),

which encodes dysbindin protein, has been identified as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. Dysbindin has been shown to contribute to the regulation of exocytosis and formation of synaptic vesicles. Although hypofrontality in schizophrenia underlies its pathophysiology, the molecular function of dysbindin in synaptic neurotransmission remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated depolarization-evoked dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of sandy (sdy) mice, which have a deletion mutation in the gene encoding DTNBP1. In vivo microdialysis analysis revealed that extracellular DA levels in the PFC of wild-type mice were increased by 60

mM KCl stimulation, and the KCl-evoked DA release

was significantly ��-Nicotinamide chemical structure decreased in sdy mice compared with wild-type mice. Extracellular 5-HT levels in the PFC of wild-type mice were also increased by 60 mM KCl stimulation. The KCl-evoked 5-HT release did not differ between wild-type and sdy mice. There was no difference in basal levels of DA and 5-HT before the stimulation between two groups. Behavioral sensitization after repeated methamphetamine (METH) treatment Vorinostat mw was significantly reduced in sdy mice compared with wild-type mice whereas no difference was observed in METH-induced hyperlocomotion between two groups. These results suggest that dysbindin may have a role in the regulation of depolarization-evoked DA release in the PFC and in the development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated METH treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In probing the cell of origin in malignant B cells, an imprint of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region genes delineates antigen encounter, and identifying the precise pathway generating SHM in the normal B-cell counterpart becomes relevant. SHM remains the definitive memory imprint in normal human B cells, but CD27 expression also delineates memory. Recently, dye extrusion adenosine triphosphate-binding transporter assays identified circulating isotype-switched memory B cells that lacked CD27, yet exhibited low levels of SHM.

The “”amyloid hypothesis”" postulates that a build-up of A beta p

The “”amyloid hypothesis”" postulates that a build-up of A beta protein is responsible for neuronal loss and the ensuing symptoms of AD. One possible mechanism

of A beta clearance, and hence AD therapy, is phagocytosis of A beta protein by microglial cells. Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells and phagocytosis is one of their innate functions. We are interested in identifying Selleck Tofacitinib molecules that augment microglial-mediated phagocytosis of A beta protein. We used the rodent BV-2 microglial cell line which readily phagocytose fluorescent latex beads and synthetic A beta(1-42) peptide. BV-2 cells treated with the neuroactive drug valproic acid (VPA) showed greatly enhanced phagocytic activity for both latex beads and A beta. VPA also reduced microglial viability by inducing apoptosis, as previously reported. The relevance of these in vitro results to the treatment of AD is unclear but further investigation into the effects of VPA on the clearance of A beta through enhanced microglial phagocytosis is warranted. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A central issue in the pathogenesis of tauopathy is the question of how tau protein dysfunction leads Selleckchem PU-H71 to neurodegeneration. We have previously demonstrated that the absence of tau protein is associated with destabilization of microtubules and impaired neurite outgrowth (Dawson et al., 2001; Rapoport et al., 2002). We now hypothesize

that the absence of functional tau protein may render the central nervous system more vulnerable to secondary insults such as the overexpression of mutated beta amyloid precursor protein (APP) and traumatic brain injury. We therefore crossed tau knockout mice (Dawson et al., 2001) to mice overexpressing a mutated human APP (APP(670,671), A(SW)) (Hsiao et al., 1996) and created a mouse model (A(sw)/mTau(-/-)) that provides evidence that the loss of tau function causes degeneration of neuronal processes. The overexpression Methamphetamine of APP(670,671) in tau knockout mice, elicits the extensive formation

of axonal spheroids. While spheroids are only found associated with A beta plaques in mice expressing APP(670,671) on an endogenous mouse tau background (Irizarry et al., 1997), A(sw)/mTau(-/-) mice have spheroids not only surrounding A beta plaques but also in white matter tracks and in the neuropil. Plaque associated and neuropil dystrophic neurites and spheroids are prominent features of Alzheimer’s disease (Masliah et al., 1993; Terry, 1996; Stokin et al., 2005), and our current data suggests that loss of tau function may lead to neurodegeneration. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Nonurothelial malignancies represent a small fraction of bladder malignancies and are less extensively studied, resulting in sparse empirical data on these tumors. We sought insight into tumor characteristics and survival.

TCA-A gives good distinction, more bands in 1-DE gels, and the mo

TCA-A gives good distinction, more bands in 1-DE gels, and the most number of protein spots in 2-DE gels. It is also rapid, provides the higher protein yield, and has the less number of steps. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, we cut several protein spots that were common to four methods from 2-DE gels, analyzed them using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, and tentatively identified them. The classic TCA-A method proved to be most useful as a standard method of extracting proteins from E. fetida.”
“The availability of an infectious cDNA clone is a prerequisite for genetic studies

on RNA viruses. However, despite important improvement in molecular biology techniques during the last decades, obtaining such clones often remains tedious, time-consuming and rather unpredictable. In the case of potyviruses, cDNA clones are frequently unstable due PD0325901 to the toxicity of some viral proteins for bacteria. The problem can be overcome by inserting introns into the viral sequence but this requires additional steps in the cloning process and depends on the availability of suitable

restriction sites in the viral sequence or adjunction of such sites by mutagenesis. Homologous recombination in yeast rather than in vitro restriction and ligation can be used to build infectious clones or other viral constructs. This paper describes how, by using recombination in yeast and fusion PCR, infectious intron-containing Doramapimod nmr clones were obtained within a few weeks for two strains of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Potyvirus), whereas previous attempts using “”classical”" cloning techniques had failed repeatedly. Using the same approach, intronless

infectious clones of two other potyviruses, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), were obtained in less than two weeks. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Deception is commonly seen in everyday social interactions. However, most of the knowledge about the underlying neural mechanism of deception comes from studies where participants were instructed when and how to lie. To study spontaneous deception, we designed a guessing game modeled after Greene and Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease Paxton (2009) “”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(30), 12506-12511″”, in which lying is the only way to achieve the performance level needed to end the game. We recorded neural responses during the game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found that when compared to truth-telling, spontaneous deception, like instructed deception, engenders greater involvement of such prefrontal regions as the left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that the correct-truth trials produced greater neural activities in the left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus than the incorrect-truth trials, suggesting the involvement of the reward system.

A proximal type 1 endoleak developed in one patient after graft d

A proximal type 1 endoleak developed in one patient after graft deployment and required reintervention for additional graft placement. No intraoperative or 30-day deaths occurred. Postoperative clinical

and radiographic assessment was a mean of 8.8 months (range, 1-40 months). For all 10 patients in whom technical success was achieved at the initial operation, no endoleaks were noted at the follow-up CT scan. In addition, no patient required a further intervention.

Conclusions: This study represents the largest reported series on the use of TEVAR in the management of aortobronchial fistulas. Supported by postoperative surveillance imaging and clinical evaluation, TEVAR has proven to be a safe and effective management strategy for an otherwise lethal condition. Long-term follow-up data are needed to ascertain the selleck products durability of this approach. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:1202-9.)”
“One of the most prevalent workplace chemical exposures historically and currently confronting the global military and civilian workforce is jet propellant (JP)

fuel (e.g., JP4, JP5, JP8, jet A1), a complex mixture of numerous hydrocarbon compounds and additives. To date, numerous protective and SAHA HDAC molecular weight preventive strategies (e.g., federal exposure limits, workplace procedure protocols, protective gear such as goggles, respirator use, gloves, and coveralls) have been put in place to minimize acutely toxic exposure levels. However, questions remain regarding the effect of repeated exposures at lower (than regulated) levels of JP fuel. The Occupational JP8 Exposure Neuroepidemiology Study (OJENES) was designed to examine the relationships between occupational JP8 exposure over multiple, repeated workdays and specific aspects of central nervous system (CNS) functioning among Air Force (AF) personnel. In this report, we present the OJENES methodology, descriptive findings related to participant characteristics, JP8 exposure levels

observed over a work week among higher and lower exposure groups, and neuropsychological task performances at the first study assessment. Results indicated minimal differences between participants Phloretin in the high and lower exposure groups in terms of descriptive characteristics, other than daily JP8 exposure levels (p < 0.001). In addition, neuropsychological task performances for most task measures were not found to be significantly different from reported reference ranges. These findings demonstrated that confounding and misclassification of exposure and outcome status are not major concerns for the study. Therefore, future OJENES analyses targeting the more focused research questions regarding associations between JP8 exposure and CNS functioning are likely to provide valid conclusions, as they will be less influenced by these research biases. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The level of caffeine was high in brain and liver, and the SSAO a

The level of caffeine was high in brain and liver, and the SSAO activity in all tissues was found to be inhibited

by caffeine. As the concentration of caffeine increased, the Selleck H 89 SSAO activity decreased. The inhibition ratio was correlated to the levels of caffeine present. We presume that caffeine may treat with SSAO activity associated diseases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In probing the mechanism of inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) by campothecins, we investigated the ability of human topoisomerase I to bind and cleave HIF-1 response element (HRE), which contains the known camptothecin-mediated topoisomerase I cleavage site 5′-TG. We observed that the selection of 5′-TG by human topoisomerase I and topotecan depends to a large extent on the specific flanking sequences,

and that the presence of a G at the 22 position (where cleavage occurs between 21 and 11) prevents the HRE site from being a preferred site for such cleavage. Furthermore, the presence of 22 T/A can induce the cleavage at a less preferred TC or TA site. However, in the absence of a more preferred site, the HRE site is shown to be cleaved by human topoisomerase I in the presence of topotecan. Thus, it is implied that the 22 base has a significant influence on the selection of the camptothecin-mediated Topo I cleavage site, which can overcome the preference for +1G. While the cleavage site recognition has been known to be based on the concerted effect of several bases spanning the cleavage site,

such a determining effect of an individual PLX4032 chemical structure base has not been previously recognized. A possible base-specific interaction between DNA and topoisomerase I may be responsible for this sequence selectivity.”
“We report the case of a 32-year-old man with severe polytrauma, submitted to urgent endovascular exclusion of a posttraumatic thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Two years later, computed tomography scan showed asymptomatic mural atherothrombosis triclocarban of the aortic stent graft in its middle-distal portion, and the patient was placed on oral anticoagulants. As subsequent computed tomography scan showed progression of the thrombosis, the patient underwent surgical conversion, with stent graft explantation and in situ aortic replacement. Gross examination revealed mural organized thrombosis and a significant infolding of the distal end of the stent graft. (J Vase Surg 2012;55:538-41.)”
“Acrylamide (ACR) intoxication in its monomeric form leads to neuronal damage in both experimental animals and humans. Oxidative stress is one of the principle mechanisms related to the neurotoxicity of ACR exposure. Hence, the present study aimed to recapitulate the potential of ACR to cause oxidative stress and neurotoxic effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Exposure of adult male flies (Oregon K strain) to ACR (1-10 mM, 7 d) in the diet resulted in a concentration and time dependent mortality, while the survivors exhibited significant locomotor deficits.

We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets,

We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland

epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland “”normal”" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the selleckchem 22 animals had “”abnormal”" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.”
“Purpose: To support trials testing lifestyle interventions for lower urinary tract symptoms, often a consequence of benign prostatic hyperplasia, we estimated the incidence and progression rates of lower urinary tract symptoms in United States men unselected for benign prostatic

hyperplasia.

Materials and Methods: We studied men in the HPFS (Health Professionals Olopatadine Follow-Up Study) whom we asked to report periodically by mailed survey whether they had undergone surgery or used medications for lower urinary Volasertib datasheet tract symptoms and to complete the International Prostate Symptom Score survey. For incidence we included 25,879 men with an International Prostate Symptom Score of 0 to 7 and no surgery history who were followed from 1992 to 2008. Incident moderate or worse lower urinary tract symptoms (6,058) were

defined as an International Prostate Symptom Score of 15 or greater, surgery, or medication use. Modest or worse lower urinary tract symptoms were similarly defined but with an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater (11,352). For progression we included 9,628 men with an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 to 14 and no surgery who were followed from when they first reported an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 to 14 until 2008. Progression to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (2,557) was defined as an International Prostate Symptom Score of 20 or greater, surgery, or medication use. We estimated age specific and age standardized rates.

Results: Incidence and progression rates increased with age (p trend <0.0001), and progression rates were higher than incidence rates. The age standardized rates were incidence of moderate to worse lower urinary tract symptoms 18.5, incidence of modest or worse lower urinary tract symptoms 40.5 and progression to severe lower urinary tract symptoms 44.

Overwintering adults of the elm leaf beetle showed a complex suga

Overwintering adults of the elm leaf beetle showed a complex sugar/polyol cryoprotectant system. The major components of the multiple systems were glucose, myo-inositol and trehalose. In this study, we investigated the seasonal profile of low molecular weight compounds and glycogen in natural population and also in response to thermal

constant regimes (5 and 15 degrees C). Among these components, a remarkable seasonal pattern of accumulation/depletion was observed in myo-inositol over the course of hibernation with the development of diapause progress. Incubating at 5 degrees C only elicited a strong response in myo-inositol synthesis during diapause. It suggests that the elm leaf beetle accumulates myo-inositol not only Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor in relation to entering diapause but also in response to low temperatures and their interactions. The laboratory acclimation experiments showed that adults exposed to 15 degrees C had no chance for accumulation of low molecular weight carbohydrate even during diapause. The results of this study illustrated that overwintering adults of elm leaf beetle produce myo-inositol as the primary substance which plays a specific role in some biochemical adjustments in overwintering

adults of X. luteola. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND

Persistent pain is measured by means of self-report, the sole reliance on which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) holds promise for identifying 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl objective measures of pain, but brain measures that are sensitive and specific to physical pain have not Alvocidib concentration yet been identified.

METHODS

In four studies involving a total of 114 participants, we developed an

fMRI-based measure that predicts pain intensity at the level of the individual person. In study 1, we used machine-learning analyses to identify a pattern of fMRI activity across brain regions – a neurologic signature – that was associated with heat-induced pain. The pattern included the thalamus, the posterior and anterior insulae, the secondary somatosensory cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the periaqueductal gray matter, and other regions. In study 2, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the signature to pain versus warmth in a new sample. In study 3, we assessed specificity relative to social pain, which activates many of the same brain regions as physical pain. In study 4, we assessed the responsiveness of the measure to the analgesic agent remifentanil.

RESULTS

In study 1, the neurologic signature showed sensitivity and specificity of 94% or more (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 98) in discriminating painful heat from nonpainful warmth, pain anticipation, and pain recall. In study 2, the signature discriminated between painful heat and nonpainful warmth with 93% sensitivity and specificity (95% CI, 84 to 100).

There was 81 1% (43/53) agreement between the expression of prote

There was 81.1% (43/53) agreement between the expression of protein spots and the immune expression of proteins (www.proteinatlas.org).

Conclusions

and clinical relevance: SCC is characterized by specific tissue marker protein patterns that allow objective detection of the disease. They can become a basis for objective automated cytology-based screening and improve current diagnostics of SCC.”
“A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. FGFR inhibitor Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 mu m (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl2 as the cation solution. The recovery Cisplatin was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Q beta, 28.0-60.0% for Clyptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water

samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100%(43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, All, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) may either enhance or inhibit responses to aversive stimuli, possibly caused by its modulatory activity on diverse neurotransmitters. Sinomenine The aim of

this work was to investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines, as well as the role of glutamatergic and GABAergic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, in responses to the antidepressant-like doses of the CB1 receptor agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the antagonist rimonabant in the forced swim test (FST). Mice received acute injections of low doses of THC (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) or high dose of rimonabant (3 or 10 mg/kg) after treatment with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor pCPA (100 mg/kg, 4 days), the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (1 mg/kg, acute) or the non-selective blocker of catecholamine synthesis, AMPT (20 mg/kg, acute). THC and rimonabant were also tested in mutant mice lacking CB1 receptor in specific forebrain neuronal subpopulations.

Both THC and rimonabant induced antidepressant-like effects, quantified as immobility in the FST.