The relationship between the structural change and the change in

The relationship between the structural change and the change in decomposition behavior of glycine with rising temperature was then evaluated It was interpreted that the decarboxylation and the deamination were caused by the weakening of C-C bond and C-N bond as well as the strengthening of NH(3)(+)COO(-) interaction with rising temperature CDK inhibitor (C) 2010 Elsevier B V. All rights reserved.”
“Cystic echinococcosis is a serious and neglected parasitic zoonosis that is regarded as an emerging disease world-wide.

Effective control of the disease is based on understanding the variability of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato), as genotypic characteristics may influence lifecycle patterns, development rate, and transmission. No molecular epidemiological research has previously been conducted to shed light on genotypes responsible for the disease in South Africa. To identify strains circulating in the country, parasite material

was collected from patients between August 2010 and September 2012 and analyzed by PCR/RFLP methods. A total of 32 samples was characterized as E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) (81%), E. canadensis (G6/7) (16%) and E. ortleppi (G5) (3%). Furthermore, two co-amplifying G6/7 genotypes were confirmed as G7 by sequencing. This is the first report on genotyping of Echinococcus species in South Africa, and, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the G5 and G7 ABT-737 in vivo genotypes from humans in Africa. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A 57-year-old woman with idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) exhibiting a left bundle branch block and left inferior axis QRS morphology underwent electrophysiological testing.

Mapping revealed that the earliest ventricular activation times during the PVCs recorded on either side of the interventricular septum were the same and no excellent pace maps were reproduced at these sites. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved in the right ventricular septum adjacent to the recording site of the His bundle electrogram. These findings suggested that the origin of this PVC was located in the intraventricular septum rather than the endocardial surface. (PACE 2012; 35:e108e111)”
“Objective. The pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias in asthma patients has GSK126 solubility dmso not been fully elucidated. Adverse drug effects, particularly those of beta 2-mimetics, may play a role. The aim of this study was to determine whether asthma is associated with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic characteristics of arrhythmogenicity (ECG) and to explore the role of beta 2-mimetics. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 adult patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 6303 participants without asthma from the cohort of the Utrecht Health Project-an ongoing, longitudinal, primary care-based study.

Results: We show that the MPE of the species

tree is

\n\nResults: We show that the MPE of the species

tree is statistically consistent as the number M of genes goes to infinity. In addition, the probability that the MPE of the species tree matches the true species tree converges to 1 at rate O(M-1). The simulation results confirm that the maximum pseudo-likelihood approach is statistically consistent even when the species tree is in the anomaly zone. We applied our method, Maximum Pseudo-likelihood for Estimating Species Trees (MP-EST) to a mammal dataset. The four major clades found in the MP-EST tree are consistent with those in the Bayesian concatenation tree. The bootstrap supports for the species tree estimated by the MP-EST method are more reasonable than the posterior probability supports given by the Bayesian concatenation method in reflecting the level PLX4032 concentration of uncertainty in gene trees and controversies over the relationship of four major groups of placental mammals.\n\nConclusions: MP-EST can consistently estimate the topology

and branch lengths (in coalescent units) of the species tree. Although the pseudo-likelihood is derived from coalescent theory, and assumes no gene flow or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the MP-EST method is robust to a small amount of HGT in the dataset. In addition, increasing the number of genes does not increase the computational time substantially. The MP-EST method is fast for analyzing datasets that involve a large number of genes but a moderate number of species.”
“The feasibility

Mdm2 inhibitor of using bead-based suspension arrays to detect serological evidence of Trichinella in pigs was assessed. Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory antigen was covalently coupled to paramagnetic beads and used to bind serum antibodies, which were subsequently detected using anti-swine antibody. The assay was evaluated by testing pig sera from farms where trichinellosis was endemic and comparing the results with those obtained using two commercially available ELISAs. With cut-offs established by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, digestion-negative sera from a Trichinella-free population of pigs were deemed seronegative. When anti-swine Buparlisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor antibody was replaced with protein A/G, higher test sensitivity (94% vs. 88%) at similar test specificity (95%), was achieved. The potential use of this assay in species other than swine was also demonstrated by testing human sera. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The first reports of disorders that in terms of cognitive and behavioral symptoms resemble frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and in terms of motor symptoms resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) bring us back to the second half of the 1800s.

Journal of Perinatology (2011) 31, 220-222; doi:10 1038/jp 2010 1

Journal of Perinatology (2011) 31, 220-222; doi:10.1038/jp.2010.156″
“The economic implications selleckchem of the choice of gonadotrophin influence decision making but their cost-effectiveness in frozen-embryo transfer cycles has not been adequately studied. An economic evaluation was performed comparing highly purified human menopausal

gonadotrophin (HP-HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) using individual patient data (n = 986) from two large randomized controlled trials using a long agonist IVF protocol. The simulation model incorporated live birth data and published UK costs of IVF-related medical resources. After treatment for up-to-three cycles (one fresh and up to two subsequent fresh or frozen cycles conditional on availability of cryopreserved embryos), the cumulative live birth rate was 53.7% (95% CI 49.3-58.1%) Stem Cell Compound Library for HP-HMG and 44.6% (40.2-49.0%) for rFSH (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85; P < 0.005). The mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-HMG and rFSH were 5393 pound (5341-5449) pound and 6269 pound (6210-6324) pound, respectively (number needed to treat to fund one additional treatment was seven; P < 0.001). With maternal and neonatal costs applied, the median cost per IVF baby delivered with HP-HMG was 11,157 pound (11,089-11,129) pound and 14,227 (14,183-14,222) pound with rFSH (P

< 0.001). The cost saving using HP-HMG remained

after varying model parameters in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It is well known that the baroreflex system is one of the most important indicators of the pathophysiology in hypertensive patients. We can check the sensitivity of the baroreflex by observing heart rate (HR) responses; however, there is no simple diagnostic method to measure the arterial behavior in the baroreflex system. Presently, we report the 17DMAG order development of a method and associated hardware that enables the diagnosis of baroreflex sensitivity by measuring the responses of both the heart and the artery. In this system, the measurements are obtained by monitoring an electrocardiogram and a pulse wave recorded from the radial artery or fingertip. The arterial responses were measured in terms of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculated from the pulse wave transmission time (PTT) from the heart to the artery. In this system, the HR change corresponding to the blood pressure change in time series sequence was observed. Slope of the changes in blood pressure and HR indicated the sensitivity of the baroreflex system of the heart. This system could also measure the sensitivity of the baroreflex system of an artery. Changes in the PWV in response to the blood pressure changes were observed.

ObjectivesPrimary objectives:1 To assess whether dri

\n\nObjectives\n\nPrimary objectives:\n\n1. To assess whether driving assessment facilitates continued driving in people with dementia\n\n2. To assess whether driving assessment reduces accidents in people with dementia\n\nSecondary objective:\n\nTo assess the quality of research on assessment of drivers with dementia.\n\nSearch strategy\n\nThe Cochrane Dementia Group’s Specialized Register was searched on 30 October 2007 using the terms: driving or driver* or “motor vehicle*” or “car accident*” or “traffic accident*” or automobile* check details or traffic.

This register contains records from major healthcare databases, ongoing trial databases and grey literature sources and is updated regularly.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nWe sought randomized controlled trials prospectively evaluating drivers with dementia

for outcomes such as transport mobility, driving cessation or motor vehicle accidents following driving assessment.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nEach author retrieved studies and assessed for primary and secondary outcomes, study design and study quality.\n\nMain results\n\nNo studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. A description and discussion of the driving literature relating to assessment of drivers with dementia relating to the primary objectives is presented.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nIn an area with considerable public health impact for drivers with dementia BI2536 and other road users, the available literature fails to demonstrate the benefit of driver assessment for either preserving transport mobility or reducing motor vehicle accidents. Driving legislation and recommendations from medical practitioners requires further research that addresses these outcomes in order to provide the best outcomes for both drivers with dementia and the general public.”
“Background: Biclustering aims at finding subgroups of genes that show highly correlated behaviors across a subgroup of conditions.

Biclustering is a very useful tool for mining microarray data and has various practical applications. From a computational point of view, biclustering is a highly combinatorial search problem and can be solved with optimization methods.\n\nResults: We describe a stochastic pattern-driven VX-689 solubility dmso neighborhood search algorithm for the biclustering problem. Starting from an initial bicluster, the proposed method improves progressively the quality of the bicluster by adjusting some genes and conditions. The adjustments are based on the quality of each gene and condition with respect to the bicluster and the initial data matrix. The performance of the method was evaluated on two well-known microarray datasets (Yeast cell cycle and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), showing that it is able to obtain statistically and biologically significant biclusters.

Methods: The parent project recruited healthy women for a ran

\n\nMethods: The parent project recruited healthy women for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial designed to examine the effect of soy isoflavones on bone. At baseline (n=122), we measured three antioxidant enzymes, iron

status indices (serum ferritin among others), oxidative stress indices (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL], urinary isoprostanes [PGF(2 alpha)], protein carbonyls, DNA damage), and waist, hip, and thigh fat mass using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We calculated insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the CVD risk factors that contributed to oxidative stress and centralized fat mass (waist+hip=thigh AndGynFM ratio).\n\nResults: Almost 14% (p<0.0005) of the variability in oxLDL was accounted for by AndGynFM ratio (6.1%, p<0.0005), age Danusertib (4.0%, p=0.012), and serum iron (2.8%, p=0.053). Similarly, 16% (p<0.0001) of the variability in PGF2a was accounted for by the AndGynFM ratio (4.8%, p=0.011), HOMA (3.9%, p=0.021), and serum iron (2.7%, p=0.054). We accounted for 33% (p <= 0.0001) of the variability in AndGynFM ratio by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

(HDL-C) Selleckchem LY2090314 (4.3%, p=0.008), ferritin (4.9%, p=0.005), HOMA (4.5%, p=0.006), oxLDL (2.6%, p=0.04), and PGF(2 alpha) (3.0%, p=0.025).\n\nConclusions: Our study suggests that reducing centralized fat mass and maintaining a favorable lipid profile, antioxidant status, and iron status all may be important in protecting postmenopausal women from atherosclerotic CVD.”
“AIM: To investigate

the frequency of idiopathic phacodonesis (IP) in senile cataract subjects and the short-term clinical outcomes following cataract surgery.\n\nMETHODS: This institutional case-control study learn more included 1301 consecutive low-income cataract subjects from June to November 2009. Anterior segment were carefully evaluated with dilated pupil under slit-lamp. IP were screened and graded by a criteria set by the authors. Risk factors, surgical outcomes, and operative complications were analyzed.\n\nRESULTS:A total of 42 subjects (3.2%) with IP were diagnosed and classified as grade 1 (36 subjects), grade 2 (5 subjects) and grade 3 (1 subject). Harder lenses and intumescent cataracts were observed in the IP group than the control group (P <0.05). Logistics regression test also indicated the main risk factor was the hardness of the lens. The incidence of zonular dialysis during surgery was 23.8% (10 eyes), which was significantly higher than the controls (0.7%, ( P<0.001). Visual outcomes of the two groups were not statistically or clinically significant.\n\nCONCLUSION: Hard nucleus and intumescent cataract are related to IP in senile cataract subjects in Qinghai, China. With more care being taken, grade 1 and some of the grade 2 IP subjects achieved similar surgical outcomes as compared to controls.

Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6 6% K vs

Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions,

which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless

of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions Savolitinib in vitro for multilevel selection to be effective NVP-BKM120 in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.”
“Chiral ligand-exchange enantioseparation of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids was successfully performed using a new open-tubular zwitterionic column with tentacle-type polymer stationary phase. The polymeric stationary phase was prepared using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl), a new reactive monomer. The preparation procedure of the open-tubular column included silanization, in situ graft polymerization with HPMA-Cl, and L-histidine (L-His) modification. L-His was used as a chiral ligand-exchange selector and copper(II) as a central ion. Successful enantioseparation of six pairs of amino acid enantiomers was achieved with a buffer of 5 mM CuSO4, 20 mM (NH4)(2)SO4 at pH 3.0. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot

fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were find more predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye.

The prognostic value of LAMP3 in breast cancer was investigated

The prognostic value of LAMP3 in breast cancer was investigated. METHODS: Expression levels of LAMP3 in breast cancer cell lines and patient tissues were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and in a tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. lmmunofluorescent staining was used to evaluate the distribution of LAMP3 in tumor xenografts relative to pimonidazole. Kaplan-Meier analysis as

well as multivariate Cox regression survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: LAMP3 was variably expressed in breast cancer cell lines and induced in an oxygen AS1842856 concentration-dependent manner. LAMP3 protein expression colocalized with hypoxic areas in breast cancer xenografts. LAMP3 mRNA was higher in breast tumors from patients with node-positive (P = .019) and/or steroid hormone receptor-negative tumors (P < .001). Breast cancer patients with high LAMP3 mRNA levels had more locoregional recurrences (P = .032 log-rank). This was limited to patients treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy as primary treatment (n = 53, P = .009). No association with metastasis-free buy Volasertib survival was found. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, LAMP3 remained as a statistically independent prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence (hazard

ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-7.5; P = .048) after correction for menopausal status, histologic grade, tumor size, nodal status, therapy, and steroid hormone receptor status. LAMP3 protein in breast cancer tissue proved also to be of prognostic relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence was provided for an association of LAMP3 with tumor cell hypoxia in breast cancer xenografts. In HKI-272 chemical structure the current breast cancer cohorts, LAMP3 had independent prognostic value. Cancer 2011;117:3670-81. (C) 2011 American Cancer Society.”
“Metastasis is the major cause of death for cancer patients with solid tumours, due mainly to the ineffectiveness of current therapies once metastases begin to form. Further insight into the biology of metastasis

is therefore essential in order to gain a greater understanding of this process and ultimately to develop better cancer therapies. Metastasis is an inefficient process, such that very few cells that leave a tumour successfully form macrometastases in distant sites. This suggests that only a small subset of cells can successfully navigate the metastatic cascade and eventually re-initiate tumour growth to form life-threatening metastases. Recently, there has been growing support for the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis which stipulates that primary tumours are initiated and maintained by a small subpopulation of cancer cells that possess “stem-like” characteristics.

“Background: Human protein kinase CK2 represents a novel t

“Background: Human protein kinase CK2 represents a novel therapeutic target for neoplastic diseases. Inhibitors are in need to explore the druggability and the therapeutic options of this enzyme. A bottleneck in the search for new inhibitors is the availability of the target for testing. Therefore an assay was developed to provide easy access to CK2 for discovery of novel inhibitors. Results: Autodisplay was used to present human CK2 on the surface of Escherichia coli. Heterotetrameric CK2 consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, which were displayed individually

on the surface. Co-display of CK2 alpha and CK2 beta on the cell buy Stattic surface led to the formation of functional holoenzyme, as demonstrated by NaCl dependency of enzymatic activity, which differs from that of the catalytic subunit CK2 alpha without beta. In addition interaction of CK2 alpha and CK2 LY2606368 inhibitor beta at the cell surface was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. Surface displayed CK2 holoenzyme enabled an easy IC50 value determination. The IC50 values for the known CK2 inhibitors TBB and Silmitasertib were determined to be 50 and 3.3 nM, respectively. Conclusion: Surface-displayed CK2 alpha and CK2 beta assembled on the cell surface of E. coli to an active tetrameric holoenzyme. The whole-cell CK2 autodisplay assay as developed is suitable for

inhibition studies. Furthermore, it can be used to determine quantitative CK2 inhibition data such as IC50 values.

In summary, this is the first report on the functional surface display of a heterotetrameric enzyme on E. coli.”
“Background: Each year, over 75,000 pregnant women in the United States undergo anesthesia care. The authors set out to assess the effects of the anesthetic sevoflurane on neurotoxicity in pregnant mice and on learning and memory in fetal and offspring mice.\n\nMethods: Pregnant mice (gestational day 14) and mouse primary neurons were treated with 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 h and 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 h, respectively. Brain tissues of both fetal and offspring mice (P31) and the primary neurons were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry to assess interleukin-6, the synaptic markers postsynaptic density-95 and synaptophysin, and caspase-3 levels. Separately, learning and memory function in the offspring mice was determined in the Morris water maze.\n\nResults: Sevoflurane anesthesia in pregnant mice induced caspase-3 activation, increased interleukin-6 levels (256 +/- 50.98% [ mean +/- SD] vs. 100 +/- 54.12%, P = 0.026), and reduced postsynaptic density-95 (61 +/- 13.53% vs. 100 +/- 10.08%, P = 0.036) and synaptophysin levels in fetal and offspring mice. The sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning and memory in offspring mice at P31.

Two observers independently assessed the angles, and distances fr

Two observers independently assessed the angles, and distances from sigmoid sinus to bony external meatus. Mastoid size was assessed by two independent techniques: area of pneumatization on Law lateral radiographs; distance from EGFR inhibitor sigmoid to bony external meatus.\n\nResults: Auditory tube angles did not correlate with mastoid size. Variations in auditory tube angles and distances from sigmoid sinus to bony meatus were found in adjacent CT slices.\n\nConclusions: These data do not support the idea that the eustachian bony lumen and external auditory canal meet more nearly straight in ears with evidence of childhood otitis

“Introduction: One third of the world population is affected by latent tuberculosis, with 9.4 million new cases; medical students have 2 to 50 times the probability of acquiring the infection. Objectives: Establish the baseline prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test (TST) at the beginning of medical studies and determine

the incidence and variables associated with TST conversion in medical students. Materials and Methods: Secondary analysis of a historical cohort (2007-2010) of medical students in a private Peruvian university. The TST conversion was evaluated. A binomial regression analysis was applied for each associated variable. Results: 707 medical students were included, of whom 219 (31%) were male. The basal prevalence of reactive TST was 14.4%. Significant associations were found check details with the year of university entry of 2007-08 (p = 0.007) and a history of tuberculosis (p = 0.02). With a total of 822 person-years, the incidence of conversion was 2.92 cases per 100 person-years (CI95%: 1.96-4.36). The TST conversion was associated with the year of university entry (RR = 2,55; IC95%: 1,06-6,30) and a body mass index >= 25

kg/m(2) (RR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,01-0,97). No association was detected with gender, tobacco or alcohol use. Conclusions: There is evidence of Nepicastat in vitro a high basal prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in medical students. The incidence rate is within expected values and high in comparison with the general population. People with BMI >= 25 kg/m(2) have protection against a latent infection. In medical students, more attention should be paid to biosecurity.”
“For visual signaling to be effective, animal signals must be detected and discriminated by receivers, often against complex visual backgrounds with varying light levels. Accordingly, in many species, conspicuous visual displays and ornaments have evolved as a means to enhance background contrast and thereby increase the detection and discrimination of male courtship signals by females. Using video playbacks, we tested the hypothesis that visual courtship displays and leg decorations of male Schizocosa ocreata wolf spiders are more conspicuous against complex leaf-litter backgrounds.

All 4 patients with genotype 2 or 3 reached SVR, as compared with

All 4 patients with genotype 2 or 3 reached SVR, as compared with 33% of patients with genotype 1 or 4 (P=0.03). A 48-week course of pegylated IFN-alpha(2a)/ribavirin therapy is effective in patients with recurrent HCV infection after LT.”
“The biliary click here tract is a very rare site for the occurrence of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. A 68-year-old Japanese female was being followed up for autoimmune hepatitis, and was referred to our hospital because segmental intrahepatic bile duct dilation was found on routine imaging studies, suggesting intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. She underwent

left lobectomy of the liver and concomitant resection of the caudate lobe. Microscopic examination of the explanted liver showed a primary composite tumor comprising small cell and mucinous carcinomas that originated in the intrahepatic bile duct. Further immunohistochemical studies, including cytokeratin-19 and chromogranin-A staining, showed the

two cellular components of the tumor to have similar characteristics. The amphicrine properties indicated that the tumor had a monoclonal origin but with biphenotypic differentiation, which was responsible for the histogenesis of this tumor.”
“Mixed matrix blends containing polyimide (PI) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are studied with atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. To examine the effect of functional mTOR target group, two types of DOSS are considered, either octahydrido silsesquioxane (OHS) or octaaminophenyl silsesquioxane (OAPs). The glass transition temperature of the model PI-OAFS blends increases with the incorporation of GAPS, an observation consistent with recent experiments on these systems. Selleckchem SB273005 A decrease in glass transition temperature is shown for the model PI-OHS blends. Radial

distribution functions for both blends are presented to show how packing between the inorganic (POSS) and organic (PI) species in the mixed matrix varies as a function of POSS loading and POSS functionalization. In addition, we report the mobility of the PI chains and POSS molecules in the material by calculating the mean square displacement. These results provide molecular insight about thermal property enhancements afforded by POSS-based additives. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Emergent operation after renal transplantation (RT) has traditionally been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We reviewed 2340 adult patients who underwent RT at our tertiary care center and identified 55 patients who required acute care surgical consultation within 1 year of transplantation. Of these, 43 were treated operatively and 12 nonoperatively. Primary diagnoses were intestinal problems in 29 patients (53%), including diverticulitis, ischemia, perforation, obstruction, and bleeding; cholecystitis in 10 (18%); fluid collections in six (11%), appendicitis and hernias in two each (4%); gastritis in one (2%); and no diagnosis in five (9%).