Addition of ytterbium to the doped glass causes a large increase

Addition of ytterbium to the doped glass causes a large increase in intensity of the green and the red emissions. In addition to these two new emissions of Ho3+ one in the blue and the other in the NIR region are also observed. This increase in intensity is ascribed to energy transfer from ytterbium ions to holmium ions. Rate equation model has been proposed to study the upconversion emission and its dependence on pumping power. Possible upconversion mechanisms for these emissions are also discussed.

Effect of changing the concentration of Yb3+ on the emission intensity, lifetime and full width at half maximum (FWHM) in F-5(4)(S-5(2)) -> I-5(8) transition of Ho3+ in codoped sample has also been studied. (C) 2009 Elsevier p38 MAPK signaling pathway B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The case report presented here is of a 4-year-old girl with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central and lateral incisors were reinforced using polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin short posts and restored using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes

function, shape, and esthetics. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: e60-e64)”
“Botulism is a rare illness caused by Cl-amidine order a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium of the Clostridium family. Clostridium botulinum GDC 0068 is the most frequent one, but Clostridium baratti and Clostridium butyricum are also neurotoxins producers. There are seven neurotoxins types, A to G; A, B, E, F and G cause human botulism. Every neurotoxin type blocks cholinergic transmission at the myoneural

junction. The least frequent syndrome results from Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and it is clinically similar to the other botulism syndromes, but with fever due to an infected wound. Disease should be suspected in lucid patient with a symmetric descending, flaccid paralysis. This syndrome appears within the first twenty days, but it could be present for weeks or months before the disease is diagnosed. This disease is poorly known, so to be diagnosed it requires a high index of suspicion. The treatment is a supportive one; administration of the specific antitoxin must be early in order to neutralize the toxin before the debridement and cleaning of the infected wound.”
“Background: Student-centred activities have been developed in a pathology course for medical students.\n\nAim: This study reports on students’ perceptions of a new form of case seminar as a way to learn pathology.\n\nMethod: The seminar was evaluated through open-ended questionnaires and the data was analysed with a qualitative content analysis approach.\n\nResults: All students reported that the case seminar was a positive learning experience.

Estimated spontaneous polarization values are close to the experi

Estimated spontaneous polarization values are close to the experimental one. The electronic structure and the evolution of spontaneous polarization are compared with those for nonmagnetic tetrathiafulvalene-p-chloranil (TTF-CA). The relationship among magnetism, orbital hybridization and emergence of spontaneous polarization has been discussed.”
“The spore photoproduct lesion (SP; 5-thymine-5,6-dihydrothymine) is the dominant photoproduct found in UV-irradiated

spores of some bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. Upon spore germination, this lesion is repaired in a light-independent manner by a specific repair enzyme: the spore photoproduct lyase (SP lyase). In this work, a host-guest approach in which the N-terminal fragment of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) serves as the host and DNA as the guest was used to determine the crystal structures of complexes including 16 bp JNK-IN-8 oligonucleotides with and without the SP lesion at 2.14 and 1.72 angstrom resolution, respectively. In contrast to other types of thymine-thymine lesions, the SP lesion retains normal Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding to the adenine bases of the complementary strand, with shorter hydrogen bonds than found in the structure of the undamaged DNA. However, the lesion induces structural changes in the local conformation of what is otherwise B-form DNA. The region surrounding the

lesion differs significantly in helical form from B-DNA, and the minor groove

is widened by almost 3 angstrom compared with that of the undamaged DNA. Thus, these unusual structural features associated with SP lesions may provide a basis for recognition by the SP 3-MA lyase.”
“The sequencing of large, complex genomes has become routine, but understanding how sequences relate to biological function is less straightforward. Although much attention is focused on how to annotate genomic features such as developmental enhancers and non-coding RNAs, there is still no higher eukaryote for which we know the correct exon-intron structure of at least one ORF for each gene. Despite this uncomfortable truth, genome annotation has made remarkable progress since the first drafts of the human genome were analysed. By combining several computational and experimental methods, we are now closer to producing complete and accurate gene catalogues than ever before.”
“This article describes an endovascular technique of treating an infected pseudoaneurysm by direct thrombin injection via a catheter placed inside the aneurysm sac while maintaining temporary balloon occlusion of the neck of the false aneurysm.”
“Protein aggregation is the cause of several human diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in protein aggregation requires knowledge of the kinetics and structures populated during the reaction. Arguably, the best structurally characterized misfolding reaction is that of alpha(1)-antitrypsm.

The diagnostic accuracy of autoscoring from auto-CPAP using diffe

The diagnostic accuracy of autoscoring from auto-CPAP using different cutoff points of RDI (a parts per thousand yen5 and 10) was evaluated by the receiver operating Selleckchem 3 MA characteristics (ROCs) curve. The study included 114 patients (24 women; mean age and BMI, 59 years old and 33 kg/m(2); RDI and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI)-auto median, 5 and 2, respectively). The average difference between the AHI-auto and the RDI was -3.5 +/- 3.9. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the total number of central apneas, obstructive, and hypopneas between the PSG and the auto-CPAP were 0.69, 0.16, and 0.15, respectively.

An AHI-auto bigger than 2 (RDI a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 5) or bigger than 4 (RDI a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 10) had an area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative for diagnosis of residual sleep apnea of 0.84/0.89, 84/81 Selleck MLN4924 %, 82/91 %, 4.5/9.5, and 0.22/0.2, respectively. The automatic analysis from auto-CPAP (S9 Autoset) showed a good diagnostic accuracy to identify residual sleep apnea. The absolute agreement between PSG and auto-CPAP to classify the respiratory events correctly varied from very low (obstructive apneas, hypopneas) to moderate (central apneas).”
“The use of natural remedies and pharmacological

mineral supplements for liver disease treatment has a long history. In present study, the levels of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined in biological samples (serum and whole blood) of female hepatitis C patients (n = 132), age ranged 30-45 years, before and after 30 days treatment with herbal/pharmaceutical supplements. For comparative study, 128 age-matched female subjects, residing in the same residential areas and have socioeconomic status, were selected as referents. The Se and Zn in supplements, blood, and sera were determined

by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was observed that Zn and Se in blood and serum samples of viral VX-680 Cell Cycle inhibitor hepatitis C (HCV) patients were reduced in the range of 28.6-39 % and 24-36 %, respectively, as compared to those of referents. After herbal/pharmaceutical supplementations, 20.6-25.0 and 9.15-13.2 % of Zn and 10.6-12.1 and 19.6-21.4 % of Se were enhanced in sera and blood samples of HCV patients, respectively. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Se and Zn in addition to some biochemical parameters were improved in HCV patients after herbal/pharmaceutical supplementation. The effects of both supplements were not significantly different (p > 0.05).”
“Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has been documented as 1 of the most distressing symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors. CRF affects functioning and impacts quality of life. Possible causal factors include physical conditions, affective and cognitive states, proinflammatory cytokines, and metabolic factors.

“The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene is a key gene in th

“The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene is a key gene in the erucic acid biosynthesis in rapeseed. The complete coding sequences of the buy MK-0518 FAE1 gene were isolated separately from eight high and zero erucic acid rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L.). A four base pair deletion between

T1366 and G1369 in the FAE1 gene was found in a number of the cultivars, which leads to a frameshift mutation and a premature stop of the translation after the 466th amino acid residue. This deletion was predominantly found in the C-genome and rarely in the A-genome of B. napus. Expression of the gene isoforms with the four base pair deletion in a yeast system generated truncated proteins with no enzymatic activity and could not produce very long chain fatty acids as the control with

an intact FAE1 gene did in yeast cells. In the developing rape seeds the FAE1 gene isoforms with the four base pair deletion were transcribed normally but failed to translate proteins to form a functional complex. The four base pair deletion proved to be a mutation responsible for the low erucic acid trait in rapeseed and independent from the point mutation reported by Han et al. (Plant Mol Biol 46:229-239, 2001).”
“We examined 10th year above-ground planted tree and total stand biomass, and planted tree foliar N and P concentrations across gradients in soil disturbance at 45 North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) installations. While ranging across several climate regions, these installations all share a common experimental design with similar measurement protocols. Across all installations planted tree biomass with stem-only harvest

(OM0), no compaction (C-0) and chemical vegetation control (VC), ranged from 2 to 90 Mg ha(-1). When compared with the OM0, full-tree harvest (OM1) had little consistent effect on any response variable. Full-tree harvest plus forest floor removal (OM2) also demonstrated few consistent effects on planted tree biomass, although Boreal – Great Lakes conifers showed some positive effects, reflecting high survival, but also negative effects on foliar nutrition. Compaction (C-2), regardless of OM treatment, increased planted tree stand biomass consistently in Warm Humid climates, and compaction with intact forest floors (OM0C2) did so across all regions. However, most installations had medium – or coarse-textured soils and compaction did not achieve theoretical growth-limiting bulk densities. Combining OM2 with C-2 resulted in lesser gains in planted tree biomass. Planted tree biomass gains with the OM0C2 were attributed largely to changes in physical soil characteristics, not to vegetation control or nutrient availability. Total stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was either unaffected or, with aspen, reduced by compaction.

However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relations

However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl

a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS Apoptosis inhibitor was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent

patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical- biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.”
“Background. An analysis of risk factors predictive of severe mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is needed to aid prophylaxis and management of this condition.\n\nMethods. We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients diagnosed between June 2002 and March 2009: 93% had mandibular ORN, which was staged 0 to III (Store and Boysen). Patient, tumor, treatment-related, and other variables were analyzed for association with mandibular MLN2238 ORN severity.\n\nResults. Oral or oropharyngeal tumors comprised 85% of our primary tumors, 80% were stage IV, and 91% were squamous

cell carcinomas. Most patients (87%) received 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy (RT), with 60 Gray (Gy) median dose; this website 28% and 72% received primary and adjuvant RT, respectively; 78% received chemotherapy, mostly concurrent (97%) and platinum-based (96%). Median time to development of ORN was 7.5 months. White ethnicity and secondary infection correlated significantly with stage III mandibular ORN (p = .038, p = .0007, respectively). Advanced age, stage IV, RT dose, post-RT, and lack of pre-RT dental extractions appeared predictive of severe mandibular ORN.\n\nConclusions. The above-cited factors are predictive of severity and can potentially guide prophylaxis and management. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 33: 1600-1605, 2011″
“The ability to ectopically control gene expression is a fundamental tool for the study of bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. While many efficient inducible expression systems are available for Gram-negative bacteria, few are useful in phylogenetically distant organisms, such as mycobacteria. We have adapted a highly-inducible regulon of Rhodococcus rhodochrous to artificially regulate gene expression in both rapidly-growing environmental mycobacteria and slow-growing pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Methods: Superficial burns caused by combustion (CO-group, five f

Methods: Superficial burns caused by combustion (CO-group, five females, three males; aged 26.8 +/- 14.2 years) and caused by ambustion (AM-group, four females, four males; aged 28.1 +/- 13.8 years) were evaluated 24 h after injury. The following parameters were obtained using RCM on injured and noninjured (control) site: horny layer thickness, epidermal thickness, granular cell size, basal layer thickness. Results: Compared with the controls (12.8 +/- 2.5 mu m), horny layer Go 6983 cell line thickness decreased

significantly to 10.6 +/- 2.1 mu m in the CO-group, whereas it increased significantly to 17.8 +/- 2.8 mu m in the AM-group. The epidermal thickness did not differ significantly in CO-group (47.9 +/- 2.1 mu m) and AM-group (49.0 +/- 3.1 mu m), however, both increased significantly compared with the controls (42.7 +/- 1.6 mu m). The basal layer thickness increased more in AM-group (17.0 +/- 1.2 mu m) compared to CO-group (15.4 +/- 1.1 mu m). Both differed significantly compared this website with their controls (13.9 +/- 0.9 mu m). The granular cell size increased significantly in both groups ompared to the controls (721 42 pro), however, a significantly higher increase was observed in CO-group compared to AM-group (871 +/- 55 mu m vs. 831 +/- 51 mu m). Conclusions: RCM evaluates significant histomorphological differences in superficial burns caused by combustion and ambustion. The

term “superficial burn” should consider the underlying cause and thus supplemented by the term “combustion” or “ambustion.” Givinostat Microsc. Res. Tech. 73:160-164, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss. Inc.”
“The recent increase in the incidence of

clinical depression represents a major public health and socio-economical burden. Depression has its roots in both professional and private domains but few epidemiological studies have looked at predictors of long term clinical depression as defined by a sick-leave of 28 days or more and a diagnosis by a general practitioner in both genders.\n\nTo study baseline predictors of long term spells of clinical depression within the framework of a large prospective study, the Belstress Study, in 6,659 men and 2,737 women aged 35-59 years at baseline survey.\n\nKaplan-Meyer survival curves and Cox regression models were used in order to relate long term clinical depression defined by a sick-leave of 28 days or more to baseline socio-demographic and work and non-work variables.\n\nDensity incidence of long term clinical depression is 0.5 years and 1.1/1,000 persons/months for men and women respectively. In univariate analyses specific gender predictors were observed as for men predictors besides level of education, were work related: high job-strain OR 1.67 (CI 95% 1.03; 2.71) and work dissatisfaction OR 1.78 (CI 95% 1.09; 2.91) whereas for women baseline predictors are related to private life dissatisfaction OR 1.84 (CI 95% 1.16; 2.

Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded

\n\nMethods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital

screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74 662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540).\n\nResults The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly learn more razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses.\n\nConclusion The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.”
“The consecutive k-out-of-r-from-n: F system was generalized to multi-state case. This system consists of n linearly ordered components which are at state below j if and only if at least k(j) components out

of ON-01910 cost any r consecutive are in state below j. In this paper we suggest bounds of increasing multi-state consecutive-k-out-of-r-from-n: F system (k1 <= k(2) <= … <= km) by applying second order Boole-Bonferroni bounds and applying Hunter-Worsley upper bound. Also numerical results are given. The programs in V.B.6 of the algorithms are available upon request from the

authors. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Aim:\n\nThe aim of this study was to describe the self-reported confidence levels of final year selleck chemicals llc students at the School of Dentistry, Cardiff University and at the University Dental School & Hospital, Cork, Ireland in performing a variety of dental procedures commonly completed in primary dental care settings.\n\nMethod:\n\nA questionnaire was distributed to 61 final year students at Cardiff and 34 final year students at Cork. Information requested related to the respondents confidence in performing a variety of routine clinical tasks, using a five-point scale (1 = very little confidence, 5 = very confident). Comparisons were made between the two schools, gender of the respondent, and whether or not a student intended completing a year of vocational training after graduation.\n\nResults:\n\nA response rate of 74% was achieved (n = 70). The greatest self-reported confidence scores were for ‘scale and polish’ (4.61), fissure sealants (4.54) and delivery of oral hygiene instruction (4.51).

Conversely, actin-mediated recycling of Cdc42 induces robust symm

Conversely, actin-mediated recycling of Cdc42 induces robust symmetry breaking but cannot restrict polarization to a single site. Our results demonstrate how cells optimize symmetry breaking through coupling between multiple feedback loops.”
“We conducted the first synchronously coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Bolling-Allerod (BA) warming. Our model reproduces several major features of the deglacial climate evolution, suggesting a good agreement in climate sensitivity between the model and observations. In particular, our model simulates the abrupt BA warming as a transient response

of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to a sudden termination

of freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic before the BA. In contrast to previous mechanisms that invoke AMOC multiple equilibrium and Southern Hemisphere climate HM781-36B forcing, we propose that the BA transition is caused by the superposition of climatic responses to the transient CO(2) forcing, the AMOC recovery from Heinrich Event 1, and an AMOC overshoot.”
“This study aimed to examine the incremental value of growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) to N-terminal pro brain natriuretic hormone (NT-proBNP) levels for the diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and possible heart failure (HF) in morbidly obese patients.\n\nWe analysed data from 207 obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) 41 8 kg/m(2)] with normal ejection fraction, LVDD, and symptoms and/or signs of HF (referred to as oLVDD with possible HF’, n 88) and with normal left TH-302 Others inhibitor ventricular function (n 119) before

participating in a medical weight loss programme, in addition to the study of healthy lean subjects (n 51). Median NT-proBNP (interquartile range) for obese subjects with oLVDD and possibe HF’ and with normal LV function was 52 (2996) and 42 (2566) pg/mL, respectively (P 0.12). There was no correlation of NT-proBNP with parameters of left ventricular filling pressure, i.e. E/E (r(2) 0.002, P 0.63) or E velocity (r(2) 0.02, P 0.24). In contrast, GDF-15 was 665 (496926) with oLVDD and possible HF’ and 451 (392 679) pg/mL without (P 0.0001). GDF-15 was significantly correlated to E/E, E velocity, E/A ratio, see more isovolumetric relaxation time, duration of reversed pulmonary vein atrial systolic flow, and left atrial size. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve that defines LVDD with possible HF was 0.56 for NT-proBNP and 0.74 for GDF-15 (P 0.0001). The addition of GDF-15 to a multivariate predicition model increased the net reclassification improvement (NRI) by 9 (P 0.022).\n\nIn morbidly obese individuals, GDF-15 levels seem to better correlate with diastolic dysfunction than NT-proBNP levels. GDF-15 significantly improves reclassification for the diagnosis of oLVDD with possible HF’ and, thus, adds incremental value to NT-proBNP.

Nominal P was 0 015/0 018 (fixed/random effect) for rs10994336 (B

Nominal P was 0.015/0.018 (fixed/random effect) for rs10994336 (Bonferroni corrected P = 0.044/0.053) and 0.023 for rs9804190 (Bonferroni corrected P = 0.069). None of the SNPs were significantly associated with SZ in the combined Nordic SZ case-control sample (N = 1,724/14,410). These results further support that ANK3 is a susceptibility gene specific to BD and that more than one risk locus is involved. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals,

“Background-Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with Enterococcus faecalis HIF-1 activation infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations.\n\nMethods and Results-A total of 84 consecutive patients admitted with definite left-sided E faecalis endocarditis in the period of 2002 to 2011 were enrolled. Forty-one patients were treated before and 43 patients were treated after January 1, 2007.

There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. At Selleckchem SB525334 hospitalization, the 2 groups had similar estimated glomerular filtration rates of 66 and 75 mL/min (P=0.22). Patients treated before January 2007 received gentamicin for a significantly longer period (28 versus 14 days; P<0.001). The primary outcome, 1-year event-free survival, did not differ: 66% versus

69%, respectively (P=0.75). At discharge, the patients treated 17DMAG research buy before 2007 had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (45 versus 66 mL/min; P=0.008) and a significantly greater decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (median, 11 versus 1 mL/min; P=0.009) compared with those treated after 2007.\n\nConclusions-Our present pilot study suggests that the recommended 2-week treatment with gentamicin seems adequate and preferable in treating non-high-level aminoglycoside-resistant E faecalis infective endocarditis. The longer duration of gentamicin treatment is associated with worse renal function. Although the certainty of the clinical outcomes is limited by the sample size, outcomes appear to be no worse with the shorter treatment duration. Randomized, controlled studies are warranted to substantiate these results. (Circulation. 2013;127:1810-1817.)”
“Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acquires its final envelope by budding into cytoplasmic vesicles thought to be derived from trans-Golgi network membranes. This process is facilitated by interactions among the carboxyl termini of viral glycoproteins and tegument proteins.

Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin

Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin layers of fixed cells prepared on a slide as well as thick samples of excised fixed porcine epithelial tissue, thus demonstrating the potential for

in vivo use. (C) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.2978060]“
“Hyperbilirubinemia remains one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses in the neonatal period. This condition may lead to the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in the central nervous system, causing nerve cell damage by molecular and cellular mechanisms that are still being clarified. To date, all the studies regarding bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction were performed in monotypic nerve cell cultures. The use of co-cultures, where astrocyte-containing culture inserts are placed on the top of neuron cultures, provides the Bafilomycin A1 means to directly evaluate VX-680 nmr the cross-talk between these two different cell types. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate whether protective or detrimental effects are produced by astrocytes over UCB-induced neurodegeneration. Our experimental model used an indirect co-culture system where neuron-to-astrocyte signaling was established concomitantly with the 24 h exposure to UCB. In this model astrocytes abrogated the well-known UCB-induced neurotoxic effects by preventing the loss of cell viability, dysfunction and death

by apoptosis, as well as the impairment of neuritic outgrowth. To this protection it may have accounted the induced expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and the 3.5-fold increase in the values of S100B, when communication between both cells was established independently of UCB presence. In addition, the presence of astrocytes in the neuronal LCL161 molecular weight environment preserved the UCB-induced increase in glutamate levels, but raised the basal concentrations of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha although no UCB effects were noticed. Our data suggest that bidirectional

signalling during astrocyte-neuron recognition exerts pro-survival effects, stimulates neuritogenesis and sustains neuronal homeostasis, thus protecting cells from the immediate UCB injury. These findings may help explain why irreversible brain damage usually develops only after the first day of post-natal life.”
“A specialized nucleosome is a component of all eukaryotic kinetochores. The core of this nucleosome contains a centromere-specific histone, CENP-A (the Cse4 gene product in budding yeast), instead of the usual H3. Assembly of a centromeric nucleosome depends on a specific chaperone, called Scm3 in yeast and HJURP in higher eukaryotes. We describe here the structure of a complex formed by an N-terminal fragment of Scm3 with the histone-fold domains of Cse4, and H4, all prepared as recombinant proteins derived from the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.