Addition of ytterbium to the doped glass causes a large increase in intensity of the green and the red emissions. In addition to these two new emissions of Ho3+ one in the blue and the other in the NIR region are also observed. This increase in intensity is ascribed to energy transfer from ytterbium ions to holmium ions. Rate equation model has been proposed to study the upconversion emission and its dependence on pumping power. Possible upconversion mechanisms for these emissions are also discussed.
Effect of changing the concentration of Yb3+ on the emission intensity, lifetime and full width at half maximum (FWHM) in F-5(4)(S-5(2)) -> I-5(8) transition of Ho3+ in codoped sample has also been studied. (C) 2009 Elsevier p38 MAPK signaling pathway B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The case report presented here is of a 4-year-old girl with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central and lateral incisors were reinforced using polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite resin short posts and restored using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes
function, shape, and esthetics. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: e60-e64)”
“Botulism is a rare illness caused by Cl-amidine order a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium of the Clostridium family. Clostridium botulinum GDC 0068 is the most frequent one, but Clostridium baratti and Clostridium butyricum are also neurotoxins producers. There are seven neurotoxins types, A to G; A, B, E, F and G cause human botulism. Every neurotoxin type blocks cholinergic transmission at the myoneural
junction. The least frequent syndrome results from Clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and it is clinically similar to the other botulism syndromes, but with fever due to an infected wound. Disease should be suspected in lucid patient with a symmetric descending, flaccid paralysis. This syndrome appears within the first twenty days, but it could be present for weeks or months before the disease is diagnosed. This disease is poorly known, so to be diagnosed it requires a high index of suspicion. The treatment is a supportive one; administration of the specific antitoxin must be early in order to neutralize the toxin before the debridement and cleaning of the infected wound.”
“Background: Student-centred activities have been developed in a pathology course for medical students.\n\nAim: This study reports on students’ perceptions of a new form of case seminar as a way to learn pathology.\n\nMethod: The seminar was evaluated through open-ended questionnaires and the data was analysed with a qualitative content analysis approach.\n\nResults: All students reported that the case seminar was a positive learning experience.