The extracted proteins were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. A total of 127 proteins were identified, 34 of which have not been previously detected in proteomic studies of bile. Among them, several proteins have been described as potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. We extended our investigation by studying the expression of some of these pancreatic cancer markers in bile samples collected from patients with various etiologies of biliary stenosis including
pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, chronic pancreatitis, as well as gallstone-induced stenosis. Our data showed a conspicuous overexpression of CEACAM6 and MUC1 (CA19-9) in pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma samples, according to the hypothesis that selleck inhibitor bile fluid collects cancer-associated protein leaking from the tumor find more microenvironment. These results underline the interest of using bile as a source of biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stenosis.”
transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens results from the transfer of DNA and proteins via a specific virulence (vir)-induced type IV secretion system (T4SS). To better understand T4SS function, we analyzed the localization of its structural components and substrates by deconvolution fluorescence microscopy. GFP fusions to T4SS proteins with cytoplasmic tails, VirB8 and VirD4, or cytoplasmic T4SS substrate proteins, VirD2, VirE2, and VirF, localize in a helical pattern of fluorescent foci around the perimeter of the bacterial cell. All fusion proteins were expressed at native levels of vir induction. Importantly, most fusion proteins are functional and do not exhibit dominant-negative effects on DNA transfer to plant cells. Further, GFP-VirB8 complements a virB8 deletion strain. We also detect native VirB8 localization as a helical array
of foci by immunofluorescence-microscopy. T4SS foci likely use an existing helical scaffold during their assembly. Indeed, the bacterial cytoskeletal component MinD colocalizes with GFP-VirB8. Helical arrays of foci are found at all times investigated check details between 12 and 48 h post vir induction at 19 degrees C. These data lead to a model with multiple T4SSs around the bacterial cell that likely facilitate host cell attachment and DNA transfer. In support, we find multiple T pili around vir-induced bacterial cells.”
“North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly.