The results of in vitro drug release were analyzed using model de

The results of in vitro drug release were analyzed using model dependent approach. Various kinetic models—zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Weibull models—were applied to obtain the drug release mechanism from the Chitosan nanoparticles [17–19]. 3. cell assay Result and Discussions 3.1. Particle Sizes Particle

sizes of respective batches are shown in Table 1. Particle size was varied in the range of 180.5 (CN3)nm to 383.3 (CN6). The drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited relatively narrow particle size distribution as indicated by relatively low PDI values in the range of 0.202 to 0.472. Low PDI Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical values also indicate the relative homogenous nature of the dispersion. 3.2. Morphology Morphology of chitosan nanoparticles under scanning Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical electron microscope (SEM) is shown in Figure 1. SEM micrograph shows that the Chitosan nanoparticles have regular and uniform spherical shapes. It also shows that there is only little aggregation between the prepared Chitosan nanoparticles. Figure 1 Scanning electron microscope image of Chitosan nanoparticles. 3.3. Drug Encapsulation Efficiency

and Drug Loading Percentage of drug encapsulation efficiency and percentage of drug loading for respective batches are shown in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Table 1. Higher drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were observed for the batch CN8, and CN5 has the lowest drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. 3.4. Statistical Analysis of Data A statistical design was utilized in order to derive the relationship between the response variables and the independent variables. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Table 1 shows the independent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical factors and response values of respective batches. The statistical evaluation of the results was carried out by Design Expert software. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results (P value) of the effect

of the variables on particles size, percentage of drug encapsulation efficiency, and percentage of drug loading can be seen in following full-model polynomial equation: Y1=249.61+31.99X1(P<0.0001)−22.89X2(P<0.0001)+38.39X3(P<0.0001)−8.66X1X2(P<0.0001)+10.76X1X3(P<0.0001)−12.86X2X3(P<0.0001)−8.14X1X2X3(P<0.0001),Y2=29.84+9.92X1(P<0.0001)−2.48X2(P<0.0001)+4.41X3(P=0.0105)−1.77X1X2(P=  0.0551)+1.28X1X3(P=0.1539)+3.61X2X3(P<0.0007)+1.93X1X2X3(P=0.0389),Y3=30.56+8.40X1(P<0.0001)−2.82X2(P=0.0008)+3.89X3(P<0.0084)−1.21X1X2(P=0.2164)+1.67X1X3(P=0.0941)+4.02X2X3(P<0.0006)+1.59X1X2X3(P=0.1108). AV-951 (6) The terms of full-model polynomial equation having insignificant P value (P > 0.05) have negligible contribution to obtained dependent variables and thus are omitted to get reduced model equation.

found that while thoracic

found that while thoracic compliance is reduced in ALS patients presenting with hypoventilation, inspiratory pressure support can improve compliance [16]. Based on this finding they suggested that NIV may provide nocturnal rest for

fatigued respiratory muscles, thereby increasing selleck chem FTY720 survival rates by improving daytime functioning of respiratory muscles [12]. However, other studies considering Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the impact of NIV on ALS patients were retrospective in nature [12,17] and therefore their conclusions as to possible mechanisms by which NIV might improve survival outcomes are unconfirmed. This study has some limitations. Its analysis was performed retrospectively in a relatively small patient population. The mechanisms by which NIV improved survival outcomes in Group 2 are unclear. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Theoretically, improved survival may have been at least partly due to slight but statistically insignificant difference in the frequency of bulbar symptoms between the NIV users and non-users. There is compelling evidence demonstrating that survival is poorest in ALS patients with severe bulbar symptoms [10]. Poor survival may also Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be due to poor compliance with NIV therapy. This likely to be a contributing factor also in the present study because

many Group 2 patients with bulbar dysfunction did not tolerate NIV. The results of this study should therefore be confirmed by studying a larger patient cohort and, using a prospective study design. However, mainly because of the fact that NIV has been established as a palliative method of choice for ALS, the ethical

considerations for withholding treatment should be taken seriously into account in any future prospective studies. Second, all patients were referred for evaluation after a diagnosis of ALS was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical confirmed. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical It was therefore not possible to assess the ventilatory function of patients in the early stage of the disease, preventing us from assessing the possible impact of early NIV initiation on survival outcomes. In addition, most of this study’s patients gave consent for NIV trial in at a later stage of the disease and presented a pCO2 greater Dacomitinib than 6.0 kPa, even if NIV was recommended for these patients in line with current guidelines [4-7]. It is therefore possible that this study failed to show that the initiation of NIV would have had a beneficial effect on the survival in younger NIV patients because the initiation of NIV was decided by the patient. Factors other than NIV may also have had an effect on patient survival. These include treatment with PEG or riluzole, and gender. In addition, the incidence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, decline in pulmonary function as well and whole body function may have impacted patients’ survival outcomes. PEG use may increase survival by months [18]. The same is true also for riluzole, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials [8,9].

To improve the properties of the hydrogel networks, a new class o

To improve the properties of the hydrogel networks, a new class of hydrogels based on the interpenetration of two-polymer network has been recently developed. IPN hydrogels are a subset of the general class of IPNs. IPN hydrogel offers a variety in the formulation of physical forms including microspheres, nanoparticles, and films. One of the most Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical outstanding achievements of IPN hydrogels in drug delivery is the Lapatinib mechanism development of smart drug delivery systems (SDDS), also called stimuli-sensitive delivery systems. The concept of SDDS is based on conversation of physicochemical property of polymer systems upon an environmental stimulus, which includes physical

(temperature, electricity, light, and mechanical stress) chemical (pH, ionic strength), or biological (enzymes) signals. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Such stimuli can be either internal signals (as a result of changes

in the physiological condition of a living subject) or external signals (artificially induced). This sensitive behavior of hydrogels has sparked particular interest in their use Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as drug delivery vehicle capable of controlling drug release and drug targeting. In a study pH-sensitive IPN hydrogel beads of ibuprofen were formulated to minimize the release of drug in acidic medium and to control the drug release in alkaline medium (phosphate buffer) depending on the need [45]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IPN beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation process using AlCl3 as a cross-linking agent. It was observed that the drug release in acidic medium (pH 1.2) was considerably slow and complete drug release was achieved in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) within 210 to 330min depending upon the formulation variables. It can be concluded that pH-sensitive IPN hydrogels could be used to target the drug in the desired region. Pescosolido et al. reported a novel class of hydrogels based on the interpenetration of two polysaccharide networks. In situ forming IPN hydrogels of

calcium alginate and dextran hydroxyethyl-methacrylate were developed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and evaluated for protein release as well as for the Cilengitide behavior of embedded cells. It was observed that after an initial burst release bovine serum albumin was gradually released from the IPN hydrogels for up to 15 days. Encapsulation of expanded chondrocytes in the IPNs revealed that cells remained viable and were able to redifferentiate. IPN was described as a promising system as injectable in situ forming hydrogels for protein delivery and tissue engineering applications [46]. 7.2. Microspheres Microspheres are another promising class of IPN based drug delivery systems. Microspheres are free flowing small spherical powder particles made up of natural or synthetic polymers having diameter in the range of 1μm to 1000μm [47].

4) [3] Propidium iodide (PI), α-mannnosidase, β-mannnosidase, en

4) [3]. Propidium iodide (PI), α-mannnosidase, β-mannnosidase, endoglycosidase H, and rhodamine 6G were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). The “Annexin V-PE Apoptosis Detection Kit I” which contains Annexin V-PE and 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-ADD) was obtained from Becton Dickinson Biosciences (Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). The caspase assay system was purchased from Promega

(Madison, WI, USA). Fluorescein isothiocyanate, isomer I (FITC), Span 80, cholesterol, and lecithin from soybeans were obtained from Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Osaka, Japan). The lecithin was purified by acetone precipitation [23]. The phospholipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(succinyl) (SuPE) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was obtained from Avanti Polar Lipids Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Alabaster, AL, USA). DSPE-PEG2000

was from NOF Corporation (Tokyo, Japan). PBS (phosphate buffered saline) was composed of 137mM NaCl, 2.7mM KCl, 10mM Na2HPO4 and 2mM KH2PO4, (pH = 7.4). 2.2. Cells and Cell Cultures Human osteosarcoma Takase (OST) cells were offered by Dr. Katsuro Tomita (Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Japan), cultured in either ERDF medium (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial, Tokyo, Japan) or Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (D-MEM) (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37°C in a humidified Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical atmosphere selleck products consisting of 5% CO2. Murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8 cells) was obtained from RIKEN (RIKEN BRC Cell Bank). These LM8 cells were grown in D-MEM supplemented with 10% of FBS at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere consisting of 5% CO2. 2.3. Cell Viability Assay OST cells and LM8 cells were inoculated in 6-well Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical culture plates at a cell density of 2.0 × 105cells/mL Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical suspended in D-MEM with 10% FBS. After 16 hours, the medium in each plate was exchanged with 10% FBS D-MEM containing then various concentration of ESA. After

incubation during one day, the cell number and the viabilities of both types of cells were evaluated by means of the “Propidium Iodide Nucleic Acid Stain” using flow cytometry [24]. The viability assay of OST AV-951 cells for EPV was also performed by the same way as above. In a similar way, time-courses of the viability of both OST cells and LM8 cells were experimentally measured in medium with ESA at a concentration of 50μg/mL. 2.4. Apoptosis Assay Apoptosis was analyzed by using the “Annexin V-PE Apoptosis Detection Kit I” according to a previously published protocol [25–27]. OST cells or LM8 cells, at a concentration of 2 × 105cells/mL, were suspended in D-MEM containing 10% FBS, and then inoculated in 6-well culture plates. After 16 hours inoculation, the medium in each plate was exchanged with 10% FBS, D-MEM containing 50μg/mL ESA. The cell lines in each plate were incubated for different time periods, followed by twice washing with cold PBS.

Considering that cases of glaucoma are estimated to increase in t

Considering that cases of glaucoma are estimated to increase in the coming years, it is important to tackle the challenges of drug delivery to the eye, as it is a complex organ that is difficult to

access both topically and systemically. The fact is that most sellckchem patients and clinicians will prefer less invasive methods of securing implantable delivery systems in the eye. We strongly believe that there are many factors to consider such as (i) placement of implants should be convenient and ensure less frequent drug administration; (ii) patients should be able Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tolerate implant placement; (iii) biomaterials used in implant preparation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as well as byproducts from possible implant degradation should be safe, biocompatible, and easily eliminated; (iv) ocular drug release from implant should be predictable while avoiding the dangers of burst drug releases and dose dumping; and (v) implantable delivery systems should not compound patients medical conditions through elevation of IOP, interference with vision, and triggering inflammatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responses. We considered that a worthwhile approach of addressing these issues with predictable drug release profiles from implantable delivery systems might

involve the application of stimuli-responsive (smart) strategies. Ocular implants that employ smart delivery

systems can Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical potentially offer great benefits over traditional systems since release of therapeutic agents can be controlled based on disease-specific (proximal) or nondisease-specific (external) stimuli [90]. It is envisaged that current advancement in the area of stimuli responsive polymers can open up new avenues for the development of novel implantable delivery systems and formulations for the treatment of glaucoma with clear and compelling long-term benefits. 4. Conclusion Glaucoma is a group of multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases that collectively are the leading cause of irreversible Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical blindness worldwide. The incidence is expected to increase remarkably in the next decade based on estimated growing aging population. Development of effective sustained intraocular drug delivery systems is a major unmet need in glaucoma Anacetrapib management. The paper critically evaluated the rationale for implantable delivery systems as strategies of relieving the burden of protracted drug administration while maintaining high intraocular drug bioavailability. Major challenges of glaucoma-focused implantable ocular drug delivery were discussed while offering possible strategies on achieving and sustaining (i) therapeutic efficacy, (ii) desired therapeutic outcomes, and (iii) patient adherence and acceptance.

Mechanism of action of anticonvulsants with respect to bipolar di

Mechanism of action of check FAQ anticonvulsants with respect to bipolar disorder Until the discovery of neuroleptics and lithium in the treatment

of BD, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was the only available-and still is the most effective- treatment of mania. The antimanic response is estimated to be approximately 80%11 Although the decisive cellular mechanisms for response remain speculative, it appears that with every Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical application of ECT the seizure threshold increases. Thus, ECT has, paradoxically, an anticonvulsant effect. Interestingly, manic patients show an increase in seizure tiireshold with fading manic symptomatology.12 These observations may supply a clinical rationale for using anticonvulsants in the acute treatment of mania. When considering the cellular mode of action of anticonvulsants, we have to distinguish between three different Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical levels: synaptic transmission, intracellular signaling, and, finally, gene activation. Following this hierarchy, we will first consider the impact of anticonvulsants on the metabolism and

the synaptic action of biogenic amines. GABA Both established mood stabilizers, CBZ and VPA, exhibit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical agonistic effects on the GABAergic system. CBZ is a positive modulator of the GABA A receptor that increases the GABA A receptor-mediated chloride current.13 VPA increases GABA release in different areas of the brain.14 This action of VPA was one of the supporting arguments leading to a GABA hypothesis of

BD.15-17 However, we are now facing a situation where we have to note that the most specific GABAergic anticonvulsants appear Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not to be as efficacious in BD as drugs with a wider range of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical action such as CBZ and VPA. A double-blind randomized trial of gabapentin18 could not support antimanic efficacy previously observed in open trials19, 20 and a first open trial for the y-aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporter – 1 (GAT 1) inhibitor tiagabine also showed no benefit in manic patients.21 Another highly specific GABAergic compound, vigabatrine, is even suspected of inducing affective disorders and psychosis in epileptic Dacomitinib patients.22 Excitatory amino acids Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated currents have been reported for CBZ.23 In addition, a decrease in aspartate release was observed for VPA.24 As far as the new antiepileptic drugs are concerned, much thought has been given to the inhibition of glutamate and aspartate release by LTG.25, 26 However, this appears to be more an effect mediated by the blockade of sodium channels rather than a direct effect on synthesis and release of excitatory amino acids.

The purpose of this work is an update of the pharmacological trea

The purpose of this work is an update of the pharmacological treatment of dystrophinopathic cardiomyopathy combined with personal results. Steroids treatment In 2004, Manzur et al. (10) described the major findings of the Cochrane review regarding the results of five randomized controlled trials of the use of steroids in DMD. These trials presented evidence that use of daily prednisolone (0.75 mg/kg/day) or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical deflazacort (DFZ) (0.9 mg/kg/day) is able to increase strength in DMD with slightly different side effect profiles. Deflazacort appears to cause less weight gain

and less bone mass deterioration, but more often it is associated with the development of asymptomatic cataracts. Long-term follow up Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of cohorts of patients treated under one or other of these drugs, and continuing the use of steroids beyond the loss of independent ambulation, showed that the increase in muscle strength was mirrored by improvement and possible preservation of cardiac function. The first study examining the effects of deflazacort treatment

on left ventricular cardiac function Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in DMD was published in 2003 by the group of D.W. Biggar (11). The study included 33 DMD patients, 21 of them taking DFZ for at least 3 years. The authors found that patients who have received DFZ for ≥ 3 years had a more preserved cardiac function than those who had not received the medication. In fact the prevalence of cardiomyopathy in the treated older patients was 5% compared with 58% in patients not treated. Preservation of cardiac muscle function was invariably associated with a better pulmonary and skeletal muscle function. Few and minor adverse effects were reported. Two years later Markham et al. (12) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical published a retrospective cross-sectional study reviewing the echocardiograms of 111 Duchenne patients aged ≤ 21 years, in order to evaluate the effect of the steroid treatment on the natural history of cardiac function in DMD patients. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Forty-eight out of 111 DMD patients had received steroids, prednisone [29] or DFZ [19]. Untreated and

steroids-treated further info subjects did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or left ventricular mass. The shortening fraction (SF) was used as a marker of left ventricular dysfunction and considered normal if it was greater than 28%. The results Entinostat showed that FS was lower in the untreated group than in steroid-treated group (30% ± 7% vs. 36% ± 5%; p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the second decade there was a dramatic increase in the number of boys – mainly those untreated – with demonstrable abnormalities in cardiac function. Although this work did not satisfy the essential causal relationship criterion of temporality – cardiac evaluations were performed after steroid treatment – nevertheless it was the first study that compared the type of steroid and demonstrated the same beneficial effect on cardiac function with both drugs.

Teachers have an important responsibility in tobacco control give

Teachers have an important responsibility in tobacco control given that they are highly respected in their communities as they influence the evolution for each aspect of life [8,9]. It has been recognised that teachers are important role models for students, Tyrphostin AG-1478 EGFR Inhibitors conveyors of tobacco prevention curricula and key opinion leaders for school tobacco control policies [9,10]. In addition, teachers have daily interaction with students and thus represent an influential group in tobacco smoking control. However, this potential can be limited if teachers use tobacco especially in the presence of students in school premises [10]. The results of a study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya to determine the prevalence

and risk factors of smoking among secondary school students indicated that, smoking among students started very early in their life due to the smoking habits of their parents at home and teachers at school

[11]. Similar results were found in the study conducted to assess the influence of smoking and tombak (local smokeless tobacco) dipping by parents, teachers and friends on cigarette smoking and tombak dipping by school going Sudanese adolescents [12]. Despite the important role of teachers on tobacco smoking control, few studies have been conducted to investigate tobacco smoking behaviours of school teachers. As far as the authors of this study could ascertain, no study on

tobacco smoking has been conducted among teachers in Botswana. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate and report on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among teachers in Botswana. Methods As part of a larger descriptive cross sectional study of occupational health issues, 3 100 school teachers in Botswana were surveyed. The study was approved by the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee and Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development. From seven education regions, 107 primary and 57secondary schools were randomly selected. All school teachers in those schools were invited to take part Drug_discovery in the study. Permission to conduct the research in the selected schools was sought from school heads. Informed consent of teachers was implied by completing and returning the questionnaire. Data was collected from August to December 2012 by means of an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. Tobacco smoking variables were constructed to estimate cigarette smoking prevalence, and proportions of ex-smokers and those who have never smoked. Data was also collected on the number of cigarettes smoked daily and number of years since quitting to smoke. SPSS 20.0 was used to analyse the collected data. Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to determine statistical associations with smoking. Results An overall response rate of 56.3% was obtained in this study.

Activating mutations in KRAS gene cause constitutively active Ras

Activating mutations in KRAS gene cause constitutively active Ras GTPase, which leads to over-activation of downstream Raf/Erk/Map kinase and other signaling pathways, resulting in cell transformation and tumorigenesis (Fig 1) (2),(3). KRAS mutations are present in approximately 30% to 50% of colon cancer specimens (4).

Fearon and Vogelstein established a stepwise hypothesis for colorectal cancer tumorigenesis and delineated the importance of mutation in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical RAS gene as an initiating event in the formation of malignant tumor (5). Rapamycin mw Figure 1 Epidermal growth factor receptor signal transduction pathway. * Common sites of mutation in colorectal cancer. Preclinical studies have suggested that constitutively activated mutant KRAS can promote tumor invasion and metastasis by stimulating matrix metalloproteases, cysteine proteases, serine proteases, and urokinase plasminogen activator that facilitate migration through the basement membrane (6),(7),(8). Despite such findings the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical role of KRAS mutation in prognosis of mCRC patients is not clear. The RASCAL study, which was the largest study designed to analyze the prognostic value

of KRAS status showed that a glycine-to-valine mutation in codon 12 increased the selleck catalog likelihood of disease relapse and a lower overall survival (OS) (9). Multiple other studies with smaller sample size did Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical not demonstrate any impact

of KRAS mutations on survival (10),(11),(12). Even in the updated RASCAL II study, the evidence of a statistically significant worse clinical outcome was limited to stage III disease and was not confirmed for other stages (13). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical These results are limited by their retrospective nature and lack of adequate power to detect significant differences. The relationship between KRAS status of primary tumor and stage at diagnosis as well as pattern of spread is also not clear. Samowitz et al. reported that codon 12 mutations in KRAS gene were found to be much more common in proximal tumors and were associated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with advance stage at presentation (14). Bazan and colleagues showed Batimastat that codon 12 mutation in tumor was associated with mucinous histology and mutation in codon 13 was associated with advanced Duke stage (15). In a retrospective study KRAS mutation of the primary tumor was also associated with higher incidence of metastatic disease to lungs (16). Analysis of KRAS and BRAF mutation status in PETACC-3, an adjuvant trial with 3,278 patients with stage II to III colon cancer revealed that incidence of either mutation was not significantly different according to tumor stage. KRAS mutation was associated with grade of the tumor, while BRAF mutation was associated with right-sided tumors, older age, female gender, high grade, and MSI-high tumors.

While dealing with 2D images, the advection factor Fadv is not co

While dealing with 2D images, the advection factor Fadv is not considered as part of the front motion. Hence, the two main speed terms, i.e., Fprop and Fcurv, are employed to deal with SAR images, where Fprop is derived from the image intensity gradient, and Fcurv from the curvature flow.2.2. Fast level set selleck products methodsAs the level set method is formulated from numerical equations for interface propagation, the iteration periods of the standard algorithm for boundary expansion are invariably longer. Taking into consideration a single pixel and its neighboring pixels, one solution is obtained by updating the value of each pixel till the final boundary is reached. For such a solution, O(N2) operations per time step are needed. Assuming the total number of iterations to be N, no less than O(N3) iterations will be needed. To overcome the problem of longer time requirement, fast level set methods such as narrow-band level set and fast marching method have been introduced.(1) Narrow-band level setLevel set computations are usually carried out using the narrow-band algorithm as described by Malladi et al. [8]. The narrow-band algorithm, however, limits the propagation front’s requirements to update the properties of the neighboring pixels around the zero level set. As shown in Figure 2, the entire two-dimensional grid of data is stored in a square array.Figure 2.Narrow-band of level set.A one-dimensional array is employed to keep track of the points in the narrow band. Assuming the number of points in the front to be k, the band width to be m, the number of iterations to be N, the operation count drops down to O(kmN). In the worst possible situation, the narrow band method will at most reduce the total operation count to (N3). Even though this indicates a significant progress over the brute-force approach, it is still considered slow for (near) real-time image processing applications [9].(2) Fast marching level setIn a situation wherein the speed function depends only on the interface position, the speed function F (Equation 7) will be reduced to F = Fcurv. Furthermore, if Fcurv > 0, it would be sufficient to solve the stationary perspective boundary problem |T|F = 1, given that x:T(x) = 0 (where T is the time of arrival of
There is an increasing demand for cost-effective and long-term stable measuring systems for gas monitoring in the environment [1, 2]. Beside traditional monitoring tasks (e.g., in research, emission analysis and safety) carbon capture and storage (CCS) develops to an important new application field for subsurface gas monitoring [3-6].