However, bacteria exhibiting all the plant-growth-promoting features simultaneously are rare . Our findings add to this list a novel bacterium, Lu10-1, which has all the plant-growth-promoting characters, namely nitrogenase activity, IAA production, and P solubilization. Plant-growth-promoting PS-341 solubility dmso effects of Lu10-1 might be due to IAA alone or the combined
effects of P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and future work will elucidate the exact mechanisms. Conclusions Strain Lu10-1 inhibited the development of anthracnose significantly. The strain can survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days, produces auxins, exhibits P solubilization FG-4592 chemical structure and nitrogenase activity, and has significant growth-promoting effects on mulberry seedlings. It can also multiply and spread inside mulberry seedlings rapidly selleck products and efficiently. Taken together, strain Lu10-1 has great potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Methods Microbial strains Cultures of B. cepacia Lu10-1
and of C. dematium were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA)  plates at 4°C until needed; C. dematium was obtained from the Department of Plant Protection of Shandong Agricultural University. Evaluation of antifungal activity Antagonism between Lu10-1 and C. dematium was studied by co-culturing the two microorganisms on the same PDA plate. A plug from the edge of an actively growing colony of
C. dematium was placed at the centre of the PDA plate and a suspension of Lu10-1 at its logarithmic phase growing on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium  was added along the periphery. Stock cultures of the bacteria were grown on the LB medium and incubated at 28°C for 1 week and, to prepare the suspension to be used for co-culturing, 100 μL of this stock culture was then added to 100 mL of LB medium and incubated at 37°C while being shaken until the exponential growth phase was reached. The plates with both the organisms were incubated at 25°C for 6-8 d. Plates to which only the LB medium Atorvastatin had been added along the periphery served as control. Mycelia in the zone of interaction with Lu10-1 bacteria were removed aseptically from the plates and placed in a drop of sterile water on a glass slide. A coverslip was placed on the film, and observations were made under a microscope (Olympus, Japan). To evaluate the inhibitory effect of Lu10-1 on the germination of C. dematium conidia, the Lu10-1 stock cultures were filtered through a Φ 0.20 μm cellulose acetate membrane (GE Healthcare, USA) filter to obtain the CFCSF. Two-fold series dilution of Lu10-1 CFCSF (10 μL) were placed into two round depressions of a depression glass slide, and 10 μL of sterile liquid LB medium was placed into the two depressions of another glass slide as control. Then, 10 μL of conidial suspension (5 × 105 conidia mL-1) of C.