The pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential remain

The pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential remains to be determined, but dual effects of P2Y(2) receptor activation on both the vasculature Bcl-2 inhibitor and renal salt reabsorption implicate these receptors as potential therapeutic targets in hypertension.”
“[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is increasingly used for response assessment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A positive interim FDG-PET was shown to be associated with an unfavorable outcome in high-grade

non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. For positive interim FDG-PET patients, the question of increasing the intensity of treatment using high-dose chemotherapy followed by auto-SCT (HDC-ASCT) remains unanswered. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic value of FDG-PET in 42 DLBCL patients who were systematically evaluated at time of diagnosis, before and after HDC-ASCT. Of note, HDC-ASCT was part of the initial treatment strategy, while FDG-PET results did not influence the treatment approach. Results and outcome were analyzed according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT. Patients were classified into three groups according to FDG-PET results before and after HDC-ASCT: those who were negative before and after (-/-; n = 25), positive before and negative after (+/-; n = 9) or

positive before and after (+/+; n = 8). The median follow-up was 34.5 (range, 19-74) months. The median EFS was significantly Thiazovivin lower for the +/+ group (27.4 months) as compared with other groups (median not reached; P = 0.0001). More importantly, there was no difference in term of EFS between the -/-

group compared with the +/- group. These results suggest that HDC-ASCT can significantly improve the bad prognosis, otherwise indicated by a positive interim FDG-PET. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2011) 46, 393-399; doi:10.1038/bmt.2010.130; published online 31 May 2010″
“PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of surgery residents to simulated laparoscopic sigmoidectomy training.\n\nMETHODS: Residents underwent simulated laparoscopic sigmoidectomy training for previously tattooed sigmoid cancer with use of click here disposable abdominal trays in a hybrid simulator to perform a seven-step standardized technique. After baseline testing and training, residents were tested with predetermined proficiency criteria. Content validity was defined as the extent to which outcome measures departed from clinical reality. Content-valid measures of trays were evaluated by two blinded raters. Simulator-generated metrics included path length and smoothness of instrument movements. Responsiveness was defined as change in performance over time and was assessed by comparing baseline testing with unmentored final testing.\n\nRESULTS: For eight weeks, eight postgraduate year 3/4 residents performed 34 resections. Overall operating time (67 vs. 37 min; P = 0.005), flexure (10 vs. 5 min; P = 0.

” An additional

47 sentinel lymph node biopsy patients we

” An additional

47 sentinel lymph node biopsy patients were frozen-section-positive for metastatic disease and underwent immediate completion axillary dissection. At least 1 SN was found in all 283 women (100%). The number of patients Crenigacestat with false-negative frozen sections was tallied; patient data were reviewed for a number of variables to see which factors might be associated with a false-negative result.\n\nRESULTS: Eleven patients had positive nodes on subsequent examination of the formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides; the false-negative rate of intraoperative frozen section was 4.7%. The sensitivity of the negative frozen section was > 95%. The following variables were compared for significance: pathologist, nuclear grade, histologic grade, margins, lymphovascular invasion,

tumor type (ductal versus lobular), and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor values. The only significant variables were lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.019) and presence of in situ ductal carcinoma (p = 0.001).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the value of intraoperative examination of SN: > 95% sensitivity. Presence of in situ ductal carcinoma or lymphovascular invasion makes these tumors more likely than others to have micrometastases to SN overlooked. (J Am Coll AP24534 datasheet Surg 2008;207:758-762. (C) 2008 by the American College of Surgeons)”
“Some bacteria utilize (semi) conductive iron-oxide minerals as conduits for extracellular electron

transfer (EET) to distant, insoluble electron acceptors. A previous study demonstrated that microbe/mineral conductive networks are constructed in soil ecosystems, in which Geobacter spp. share dominant populations. In order to examine how (semi) conductive iron-oxide minerals affect EET paths of Geobacter spp., the present study grew five representative Geobacter strains on electrodes as the sole electron acceptors in the absence or presence of (semi) conductive iron oxides. It was found that iron-oxide minerals enhanced current generation by three Geobacter strains, while no effect was observed BIIB057 in another strain. Geobacter sulfurreducens was the only strain that generated substantial amounts of currents both in the presence and absence of the iron oxides. Microscopic, electrochemical and transcriptomic analyses of G. sulfurreducens disclosed that this strain constructed two distinct types of EET path; in the absence of iron-oxide minerals, bacterial biofilms rich in extracellular polymeric substances were constructed, while composite networks made of mineral particles and microbial cells (without polymeric substances) were developed in the presence of iron oxides. It was also found that uncharacterized c-type cytochromes were up-regulated in the presence of iron oxides that were different from those found in conductive biofilms.

Decidua were acquired from women in early pregnancy who underwent

Decidua were acquired from women in early pregnancy who underwent artificial abortion without any endometrial problems. Twelve were in proliferative

SB273005 purchase phase and 13 were deciduas. P57 and Cyclin G1 mRNA and protein were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. Results: The expression of P57 mRNA and protein were lower in proliferation phase compared with the early pregnancy decidua. Cyclin G1 mRNA and protein expression were slightly higher in decidua than proliferation endometrium but it had no significant difference. Conclusion: P57 and Cyclin G1 may play an important role in the endometrial change during the embryo implantation.”
“The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session Z-DEVD-FMK research buy on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes

and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 +/- 2 to 25 +/- 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 +/- 1 to 28.2 +/- 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.6 +/- 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 1.5 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated

with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show BIBF 1120 purchase improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.”
“Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) is the most common autosomal dominant ataxia. The disease is caused by an expansion of a CAG-trinucelotide repeat region within the coding sequence of the ATXN3 gene, and this results in an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the Ataxin-3 protein. The polyQ expansion leads to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Here, we tested the ability of a number of proteins that interact with Ataxin-3 to modulate SCA3 pathogenicity using Drosophila. Of 10 candidates, we found four novel enhancers and one suppressor.

Identifying ways to mitigate obesity-related alterations is of cu

Identifying ways to mitigate obesity-related alterations is of current clinical importance. This study examined the effects of an 8-month exercise intervention on the uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber tract connecting frontal and temporal lobes. Participants consisted of 18 unfit, overweight 8- to 11-year-old children (94% Black) who were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise

(n = 10) or a sedentary control group (n = 8). Before and after the intervention, all subjects participated in a diffusion tensor MRI scan. Tractography was conducted to isolate the uncinate fasciculus. The exercise group showed improved white matter integrity as compared to the control group. These findings are consistent with an emerging literature suggesting beneficial effects of exercise on white matter integrity.”

investigation the extract of Penicillium solitum GWQ-143 led to yield four new compounds penipyrols A-B (1-2) and peniamidones A-B (3-4), together with peniamidones C-D (5-6), which had been previously described as synthetic intermediates, not obtained from natural resource. The structures of those new compounds were established through extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 exhibited great radical scavenging activities against DPPH with IC50 values ranged from 4.7 to 15.0 mu M.”
“OBJECTIVE. Blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma can cause significant injury to the genitourinary organs, and radiologic imaging plays a critical role both in diagnosing these injuries and in determining the management. In this article, we describe and Daporinad in vitro PKC412 nmr illustrate the spectrum of injuries that can occur in the genitourinary system in order to facilitate accurate and rapid recognition of the significant injuries.\n\nCONCLUSION. Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract in a patient who has suffered either blunt or penetrating trauma because multiorgan injury is common in such patients. Contrast-enhanced CT is the primary imaging technique used to evaluate the upper and lower urinary tract for trauma. Cystography and urethrography remain useful techniques

in the initial evaluation and follow-up of trauma to the urinary bladder and urethra.”
“Overexpression of antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are observed in approximately 80% of B-cell lymphomas, contributing to intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Nullifying antiapoptotic function can potentially overcome this intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. AT-101 is a BH3 mimetic known to be a potent inhibitor of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members including Bcl-2, Bcl-X-L, and Mcl-1. In vitro, AT-101 exhibits concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against lymphoma and multiple myeloma cell lines, enhancing the activity of cytotoxic agents. The IC50 for AT-101 is between 1 and 10 mu M for a diverse panel of B-cell lymphomas.

Altogether 26% of the urine samples from 12 of 24 patients tested

Altogether 26% of the urine samples from 12 of 24 patients tested positive for EtG (0.5-434 mg/l) and/or EtS (0.1-87 mg/l). In one patient, samples were only positive for GW69A EtS. In 21% of 211 self-reports from 11 patients,

alcohol ingestion was admitted in the past 3 days. In 87% of the 211 complete cases, the self-report information agreed with the EtG/EtS results (i.e. true positives and true negatives). The highest frequency of drinking was seen in the drug-dependent group with only 20% of the patients being abstinent according to both measures. This compares with 62.5% abstinence in the alcohol-dependent group and 50% in the methadone maintenance therapy group. Conclusion: Although based on a limited number of subjects, these results indicated that urinary EtG and EtS testing is a useful tool for objective identification of recent drinking in outpatients treated for alcohol and drug dependence.”
“The present study was designed to study LDK378 cell line the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence regarding the sun protection factor studies on essential oil of Curry leaf oil (Murraya koenigii L. Spring., Rutaceae). This study investigates its in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) by COLIPA method of Curry leaf oil in a cream formulation. The sun protection

factor were analysed by using Optometrics LLC, SPF-290S is a recording ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) FGFR inhibitor spectrophotometer using samples exposed to Xenon arc lamp. The sun protection factor of Curry leaf oil cream exhibited less activity (SPF=2.04 +/- 0.02) suggesting

it can be used to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin or can be used as an adjuent in other formulations to enhance the activity.”
“Contents Protein JY-1 is an oocyte-specific protein that plays an important regulatory role in the granulosa cell layer and during the early embryo development stages. It is the first specific protein of maternal origin discovered in a single-ovulating species. In this study, the exon regions of the JY-1 gene were characterized by sequencing in 20 unrelated cattle (Bos taurus indicus) and 20 unrelated buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Eighteen polymorphisms were detected in cattle and 10 polymorphisms in buffaloes. Some of the polymorphisms were identified in codifying regions and caused amino acid changes. The insertion of a thymine was detected in the codifying region of exon 3 of the buffalo sequence when compared to the cattle one. This insertion causes a change in the codons frameshift from this point onwards, modifying the 19 terminal amino acids of the buffalo protein and creating a premature stop codon. This finding may explain reproductive differences between cattle and buffaloes in terms of follicle recruitment, embryo development and incidence of twin pregnancies.

The titers of auto (Abs) to TNF-alpha, interferon-alpha (IFN-alph

The titers of auto (Abs) to TNF-alpha, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Neutralizing activities of high-titer auto Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha were determined using functional in vitro assays.\n\nResults: Highly significant increased titers of auto

Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha were detected in patients with psoriasis compared with healthy subjects and patients with AD (mean titers more than fourfold). These auto Abs demonstrated some neutralizing activity in vitro, but their serum levels did not correlate with the intensity and duration of the disease and with phototherapy induced remissions. Significantly increased titers albeit to a lesser extent, of auto Abs to CCL3 were detected in AD.\n\nConclusions: Psoriasis patients produce markedly

increased levels of auto Abs to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha which are two of the key cytokines in mTOR inhibitor this disorder. The presence of these auto Abs which possess some neutralizing activity in vitro, may be an epiphenomenon or might play a role in attempting to suppress the ongoing inflammatory process. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for investigative Dermatology.”
“We report the case of a 55 year old female patient who presented to our clinic in 2008 and 2009 with ischemic learn more stroke in left ventral medulla oblongata and right thalamus. Thorough medical testing revealed no etiology of the strokes in the so far healthy woman. CSF diagnosis elicited active Neuroborreliosis in the patient. After antibiotic treatment stroke did not recur so far.”
“Recent developments and therapeutic use of selective BRAF inhibitors (e.g. dabrafenib and vemurafenib) Gilteritinib have significantly improved overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Despite their survival benefits, small-molecule inhibitors of BRAF

are associated with significant and sometimes severe treatment-related dermatological toxicity. The most common adverse skin reactions include photosensitivity, induced malignant lesions of the skin such as keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinoma and new primary melanomas, as well as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation dysfunctions that can manifest as skin papillomas, hand-foot skin reaction, keratosis pilaris-like rash, acantholytic dyskeratosis and cysts of the milia type. In this article, we describe the clinical and histological features of the cutaneous manifestations induced by vemurafenib and dabrafenib on the basis of our clinical experience and a literature review. The crucial role of dermatologists in patient management is also highlighted. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The quality of life in patients with chronic low-back pain is lower in comparison with that in general population.

It is associated with minimal complications and a good outcome “<

It is associated with minimal complications and a good outcome.”
“The discovery of kisspeptin as key central regulator of GnRH secretion has led to a new level of understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human reproduction. The related discovery of the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) pathway in the last decade has further strengthened our understanding of the modulation of GnRH secretion by endocrine, metabolic and environmental inputs. In this review, Selleckchem Dibutyryl-cAMP we summarize current understanding of the physiological roles of these novel neuropeptides, and discuss the clinical relevance

of these discoveries and their potential translational applications. A systematic literature search was performed using PUBMED for all English language articles up to January 2014. In addition, this website the reference lists of all relevant original research articles and reviews were examined. This review focuses mainly on published human studies but also draws on relevant animal data. Kisspeptin is a principal regulator of the secretion of gonadotrophins, and through this key role it is critical for the onset of puberty, the regulation of sex steroid-mediated feedback and the control of adult fertility. Although there is some sexual dimorphism, both neuroanatomically and functionally,

these functions are apparent in both men and women. Kisspeptin acts upstream of GnRH and, following paracrine stimulatory and inhibitory inputs from neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neuropeptides), signals directly to GnRH neurones to control pulsatile GnRH release. When administered to humans in different isoforms, routes and doses, kisspeptin robustly stimulates LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. Manipulation P005091 in vitro of the KNDy system is currently the focus of translational research with the possibility of future clinical application to regulate LH pulsatility, increasing gonadal sex steroid secretion in reproductive disorders characterized by decreased LH pulsatility, including hypothalamic amenorrhoea and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Conversely

there may be scope to reduce the activity of the KNDy system to reduce LH secretion where hypersecretion of LH adds to the phenotype, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome. Kisspeptin is a recently discovered neuromodulator that controls GnRH secretion mediating endocrine and metabolic inputs to the regulation of human reproduction. Manipulation of kisspeptin signalling has the potential for novel therapies in patients with pathologically low or high LH pulsatility.”
“Background. The lack of pathognomonic findings and the chance of complicated disease have resulted in the widespread use of additional imaging to diagnose acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD). The added value of additional imaging in the diagnostic workup of patients suspected of ACD is not well defined. Aims.

In addition, it was shown that IL-17A and IL-10 production was in

In addition, it was shown that IL-17A and IL-10 production was increased in the presence of IL-6 and TGF-beta 1. Conclusions: It was shown that M. pneumoniae antigens

induced potent immunoreaction and enhanced the Th17 cell response both in vivo and in vitro, and that both Treg and IL-10 are involved in the suppression DZNeP of IL-17A production. This raises the possibility that breakdown of the immune balance may be part of the process leading to subsequent development of extrapulmonary mycoplasmal pneumonia.”
“Background/Aims: There is emerging evidence of gabapentin and pregabalin (gabapentinoid) abuse, particularly in the substance misuse population, and some suggestion of gabapentinoids being

abused alongside methadone. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in six substance misuse clinics, looking for evidence of gabapentinoid abuse. Results: 22% (29/129) of respondents admitted to abusing gabapentinoids, and of these, 38% (11/29) abused gabapentinoids in order to potentiate the ‘high’ they obtained from methadone. Conclusions: Gabapentinoid abuse along with methadone has not previously been Entinostat datasheet described. These findings are of relevance to clinicians working within both substance misuse services and chronic pain services. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia,

i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established TPCA-1 NF-��B inhibitor populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures.”
“Tumour-oriented nanocarrier drug delivery approaches with photo-sensitivity have been drawing considerable attention over the years.

72) Limitations of the GPS equipment precluded assessment of inc

72). Limitations of the GPS equipment precluded assessment of including complete GPS-based mobility information.\n\nConclusions: The study found Pexidartinib moderate agreement between short-term personal measurements and estimates of ambient air pollution at home based on interpolation of ambient monitors and land-use regression. These results support the use of land-use regression models in epidemiological studies, as the ability of such models to characterise high resolution spatial variability is “reflected” in personal exposure measurements, especially when mobility is characterised.”
“The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors

the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate

matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light SB273005 purchase on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for
s of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health.”
“Hepatocholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) is a rare primary liver cancer. Its long-term prognosis is still not well-defined. Results from the Eastern and

Western literature have been conflicting and no conclusions can be drawn. The aim of the present study was to review the long-term outcome of curative hepatectomy for HCC-CC.\n\nProspectively collected data from December 1991 PXD101 in vivo to 2006 recording patients with primary liver cancer receiving curative hepatectomy were reviewed. Twenty-five patients, 16 men and 9 women with a median age of 48 years, all ethnic Chinese, had HCC-CC. Their long-term outcome of resection was analyzed and compared to that of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).\n\nThe HCC-CC patients had a median tumor size of 7.5 cm. Five of them developed postoperative complications. The median follow-up period was 25 months. All of the patients developed recurrence. The median overall survival was 25.2 months. The HCC-CC and CC groups had significantly worse overall survival than the HCC group (HCC versus HCC-CC, p = 0.012; HCC versus CC, p = 0.

A549 cell pretreatment with WRW4, an antagonist of the transmembr

A549 cell pretreatment with WRW4, an antagonist of the transmembrane formyl peptide receptor-like 1 protein attenuated LL-37′s ability to increase cell stiffness. The LL-37-mediated increase in cell stiffness was accompanied by a decrease in permeability and P. aeruginosa uptake by a confluent monolayer of polarized normal human bronchial epithelial cells. These results suggested that the antibacterial effect of LL-37 involves an LL-37-dependent increase in cell stiffness

that prevents epithelial invasion by bacteria. The LBH589 in vivo Journal of Immunology, 2011, 187: 6402-6409.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of motoneurons. The majority of ALS cases are associated with a sporadic form whose etiology is unknown. Several pieces of evidence favor autoimmunity as a potential contributor to sporadic ALS pathology. To gain understanding concerning possible antigens interacting with IgGs from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-IgGs), we studied immunoreactivity against neuromuscular junction (NMJ), spinal cord and cerebellum of mice with and without the Ca(V)2.1 pore-forming subunit AZD1208 research buy of the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channel. ALS-IgGs showed a strong reactivity against

NMJs of wild-type diaphragms. ALS-IgGs also increased muscle miniature end-plate potential frequency, suggesting a functional role for ALS-IgGs on synaptic signaling. In support, in mice lacking the Ca(V)2.1 subunit ALS-IgGs showed significantly reduced NMJ immunoreactivity and did not alter spontaneous acetylcholine release. This difference in reactivity was absent when comparing N-type Ca(2+) channel wild-type or null mice. These results are particularly relevant because motoneurons are known to be early pathogenic targets in ALS. Our findings add further evidence supporting autoimmunity as one of the possible mechanisms contributing to ALS pathology. They also suggest that serum autoantibodies in a subset of ALS patients would XMU-MP-1 interact with NMJ proteins down-regulated when P/Q-type

channels are absent.”
“Recycling of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) waste was achieved through glycolysis using diethyleneglycol (DEG) and poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG 400), which yielded different fractions that exhibited hydroxyl numbers of 174.41 and 54.86 mg of KOH/g, respectively, whereas GPC profiles revealed bimodality in both cases corresponding to Mn values equivalent to 534 and 1648. The products of glycolysis from both cases were individually incorporated as modifiers during the synthesis of urea-formaldehyde resins from both the basic as well as acidic stages, respectively. It was found that the free formaldehyde level was remarkably decreased for the modified resins while the gel time was slightly affected indicating some activation of the resins.