Survival time was predicted to be 45 6 +/- A 0 9 months (mean +/-

Survival time was predicted to be 45.6 +/- A 0.9 months (mean +/- A standard deviation). Based on the log-rank test, the reoperation rate was higher at L5-6 (p = 0.002) and two-level (p = 0.01) NVP-AUY922 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor DIAM (TM) implantation compared with L4-5 and one-level DIAM (TM) implantation. However, gender (p = 0.16), age (p = 0.41), and diagnosis (p = 0.67) did not significantly affect the

reoperation rate of DIAM (TM) implantation. Based on a Cox regression model, L5-6 [hazard ratio (HR), 10.3; 95% CI, 1.7-63.0; p = 0.01] and two-level (HR, 10.4; 95% CI, 1.2-90.2; p = 0.04) DIAM (TM) implantation were also significant variables associated with a higher reoperation rate. Survival time was significantly lower in L5-6 (47 vs. 22 months, p = 0.002) and two-level DIAM (TM) implantation (46 vs. 18 months, p = 0.01) compared with L4-5 and one-level DIAM (TM) implantation. The current results suggest that 8% of the patients who have a DIAM (TM) implantation for primary lumbar spinal stenosis or disc herniation are expected to undergo reoperation at the same level within 4 years after surgery. Based

on the limited data set, DIAM (TM) implantation at L5-6 and two-level in patients with LSTV are significant PF-6463922 risk factors for reoperation.”
“In the framework of large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM), we present a practical methodology to integrate prior knowledge about the registered shapes in the regularizing metric. Our goal is to perform rich anatomical shape comparisons from volumetric images with the mathematical properties offered by the LDDMM framework. We first present the notion of characteristic scale at which image features are deformed. We then propose a methodology to compare anatomical shape variations in a multi-scale fashion, i.e., at several characteristic scales simultaneously. In this context, we propose a strategy to quantitatively measure the feature differences observed at each characteristic scale separately. After describing our methodology, we illustrate the performance of the method on selleck compound phantom data. We then compare the ability of our method to segregate a group

of subjects having Alzheimer’s disease and a group of controls with a classical coarse to fine approach, on standard 3D MR longitudinal brain images. We finally apply the approach to quantify the anatomical development of the human brain from 3D MR longitudinal images of pre-term babies. Results show that our method registers accurately volumetric images containing feature differences at several scales simultaneously with smooth deformations.”
“The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (creeping juniper) and J. scopulorum Sarg. (Rocky Mountain juniper).

Moreover, electron microscope observations indicate that slight m

Moreover, electron microscope observations indicate that slight miscut (similar to 0.5 degrees) of the R-plane sapphire substrate almost completely suppresses the formation of twinning defects in the (11 (2) over bar6) GaN films. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi :10.1063/1.3475521]“
“The comparison of the degree of crystallinity and the micromechanical properties in the blends of recycled amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with a compatibilizer

in different proportions is reported. The physical study of the composites of the compatibilized blends and clay is also discussed. The analysis, performed by means of wide-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry techniques, permits us to describe, at microscale level, the role of the compatibilizer on the structure and microhardness of the polymer blends that we studied. The results reveal that PET was incompatible with both iPP and HDPE. However, the presence of the compatibilizer, a styrene ethylene/butylene Ulixertinib ic50 styrene block copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride, allowed the compatibilization of these polymers. In the PET/iPP blends, the

clay seemed to have a nucleating effect on the iPP and also induced a hardness increase in the compatibilized blends. On the other hand, in case of PET/HDPE, the crystallinity of these samples (pure blends, blends with compatibilizer, and blends with compatibilizer plus clay) only depended on their composition. Similarly to the PET/iPP blends, the addition of clay induced an increase in the hardness of the compatibilized find more blends. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1278-1287, 2010″

synchrotron radiation diffraction results indicate that the room temperature tetragonal (T) phase in (93-92)%Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-(7-8)%PbTiO(3) [PZN-(7-8)%PT] single crystals is a metastable phase stabilized by the transformation-cum-cooling stress in the crystal. This is manifested by the “”missing”" (001)(T) diffractions when the diffractions were taken from (001) fractured surfaces. The stress relaxation in this case has caused the metastable (001)(T) domains in the surface layer to transform to the equilibrium rhombohedral phase. Temperature and particle size effects on the metastable domains have been examined and discussed. Based on the present finding, a new PZN-PT phase diagram showing extended rhombohedral+tetragonal region is proposed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3460804]“
“The effect of cellulases and beta-glucanases was evaluated for energy savings in the papermaking refining process. Two commercial enzyme preparations. Celluclast 1.

It was located between the omotransverse muscle and axillary arte

It was located between the omotransverse muscle and axillary artery and vein. The sensitive effect in the forelimb was seen mainly in the area supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve, indicating successful blockage in 17DMAG order the nerve plexus. Out of the eight forelimbs, the motor effect was observed in seven forelimbs. These results suggest the clinical feasibility of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block in bovine medicine, although further studies are needed to examine various approaches, including

the sites of needle insertion and the appropriate volume and dosage of anaesthetic. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau into paired-helical filaments is the defining characteristic of the tauopathies. It has become apparent that the hyperphosphorylation of tau likely plays a role in the aggregation process and thus strategies to reduce tau phosphorylation are generating wide interest. The O-GlcNAc posttranslational modification of tau has been shown to be reciprocal to its phosphorylation; increasing O-GlcNAc leads to reductions in tau phosphorylation. In this mini-review, we highlight the use of chemical compounds as a means of understanding the reciprocal nature of tau phosphorylation and tau O-GlcNAcylation and highlight some recent progress in this area.”
“Background: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with anti-malarials bought over-the-counter (OTC) from untrained drug vendors. Selfmedication through drug vendors can be ineffective, with increased risks of drug toxicity and development of drug resistance. Global malaria control initiatives highlights the potential role of drug vendors to improve access to early effective malaria treatment, which underscores the need for interventions to improve treatment obtained from these outlets. This

study aimed to determine the feasibility and impact of training rural drug vendors on community-based malaria treatment and advice with referral of severe cases to AZD5153 molecular weight a health facility.

Methods: A drug vendor-training programme was carried out between 2003 and 2005 in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. A total of 16 drug vendors were trained and monitored for eight months. The programme was evaluated to measure changes in drug vendor practice and knowledge using exit interviews. In addition, home visits were conducted to measure compliance with referral.

Results: The intervention achieved major improvements in drug selling and referral practices and knowledge. Exit interviews confirmed significant increases in appropriate anti-malarial drug dispensing, correct history questions asked and advice given.

1%, 13 9%, and 5 7%, respectively,

and did not differ sig

1%, 13.9%, and 5.7%, respectively,

and did not differ significantly by the baseline cytology interpretation (ASCUS or LSIL). Taking HPV genotypes into account, having a CIN 1 (compared with no CIN 1) was not a Selleckchem PU-H71 risk factor for developing CIN 3 (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.8).

CONCLUSION: A CIN 1 diagnosis does not represent a significant risk factor for CIN 3 above the risk attributed to its molecular cause, genotype-specific HPV infection.”
“Purpose of review

Drug-refractory ventricular tachycardia in the setting of structural heart disease results in frequent implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies and an increased risk of heart failure. Management requires catheter ablation procedures for effective suppression of the arrhythmia.

Recent Sapitinib clinical trial findings

Imaging and electroanatomic mapping technologies provide new insights into the myocardial structural

abnormalities responsible for ventricular tachycardia. Integration of imaging data with three-dimensional mapping systems coupled with improved targeting of abnormal electrical signals may improve the ablation outcomes. New ablation tools show promise for the effective ablation of previously unreachable myocardial ventricular tachycardia circuits.


Catheter ablation procedures have evolved over the last 2 decades. Improved technology may contribute to more widespread utilization of catheter ablation in the LY333531 cost future.”
“Leptadenia reticulata, a member of Asclepiadaceae, is a pharmaceutically important plant and has a number of medicinal properties. We describe here first time an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol using leaf of mature plant as explant. Callus was induced from cut ends of leaf inoculated on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) each of 2,4-D and BAP + additives. MS medium having a concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 mgl(-1)) and BAP (0.5 mgl(-1)) was found optimum for callus proliferation. Shoot differentiation from proliferated callus was observed on MS medium containing BAP alone or in combination with

IAA or NAA. The maximum number (30.70+/-1.70) of shoots with average length (8.62+/-0.32 cm) was produced on MS medium having a combination of BAP (0.5 mgl(-1)) and NAA (0.1 mgl(-1)). The shoots (81.6%) were rooted in vitro on one-fourth strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (1.5 mgl(-1)) and 100 mgl(-1) AC. For ex vitro rooting (85.0%), shoot bases were pretreated with auxin (IBA 200 mgl(-1)) for 3 min. Rooted plantlets by both methods were successfully acclimatized under the green house conditions with about 95% survival rate. The present protocol may be applicable for (i) large scale plant production (ii) germplasm conservation (iii) genetic transformation (iv) protoplast fusion and (v) superior somaclonal variants selection of this multipurpose medicinally important endangred plant. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results


The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results

of cementless arthroplasty with a simultaneous subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in a group of patients with Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip.

Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated the results and complications of twenty-eight consecutive primary cementless total hip arthroplasties in twenty-four patients (twenty women and four men), all of whom had Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. The arthroplasty was performed in combination with a subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy and with placement of the acetabular component at the level of the anatomic hip center. The patients were evaluated at a mean of 4.8 years postoperatively.

Results: LXH254 mw The mean Harris hip score increased from 43 points preoperatively to 89 points at the time of final follow-up (p < 0.01). Twelve (43%) of the twenty-eight hips had an early or late complication or a reoperation. Two (7%) of the twenty-eight subtrochanteric osteotomies were followed by nonunion. There was one instance of isolated loosening of the femoral stem. One acetabular component loosened, and one acetabular

liner disengaged. Four hips dislocated postoperatively. All remaining components were well-fixed at the time of the last radiographic follow-up. No sciatic neurapraxic injuries were identified.

Conclusions: Cementless total hip arthroplasty combined selleck with a subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy in patients with a high hip dislocation secondary buy PS-341 to developmental dysplasia was associated with high rates of successful fixation of the implants and healing of the osteotomy site and a mean postoperative Harris hip score of 89 points. The complication rate, however, was substantially higher than that associated with primary total hip arthroplasty in patients with degenerative arthritis.”
“The majority of studies of surgical outcome focus on measures of function and pain. Increasingly, however, the desire

to include domains such as patients’ satisfaction and expectations had led to the development of simple measures and their inclusion into clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ pre-operative expectations of and post-operative satisfaction with the outcome of their spinal surgery.

As part of the FASTER randomised controlled trial, patients were asked pre-operatively to quantify their expected improvement in pain and health status at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months following surgery using 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS), and to indicate their confidence in achieving this result and also the importance of this recovery to them. Patients were then asked to rate their satisfaction with the improvement achieved at each post-operative review using 100 mm VAS.

A variety of FePt nanocrystals, including nanowires, nanorods, na

A variety of FePt nanocrystals, including nanowires, nanorods, nanocubes, and nanosized DNA Damage inhibitor multipods, were successfully obtained. The shape control was realized by simply varying synthesis

parameters. The as-synthesized nanocrystals, having chemically disordered fcc structure, are found to be superparamagnetic at room temperature and their ferromagnetic-superparamagnetic transition temperature is size dependent that increases with particle size. The as-synthesized FePt nanocrystals were transformed to the chemically ordered L1(0) structure upon heat treatment, which exhibits hard magnetic properties with coercivity as high as 25 kOe. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3077210]“
“The redox properties of the hydroethanol extract

(EE) and its ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol (HMF) fractions obtained from Abarema cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark were evaluated. EAF had the highest total phenol content (848.62 +/- 78.18mgg(-1)), while EE showed the highest content of catechin (71.2 mu gg(-1)). EE, EAF and HMF exhibited the highest levels of antioxidant find more activity at 100 and 1000 mu gmL(-1) when the non-enzymatic antioxidant potential was evaluated by the total reactive antioxidant potential, total antioxidant reactivity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. In addition, EAF and HMF showed SOD-like activity. The results for EE, EAF and HMF in this study showed that A. cochliacarpos (Gomes) Barneby & Grimes stem bark have redox properties and may be able to help the endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems to keep the redox balance.”
“To assess the patterns of, and trends over time in, health-related

quality of life (HRQL) reporting in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

The English-language literature of RCTs published in 2002-2008 was identified using Medline, Embase, and Healthstar Taselisib inhibitor databases, in addition to the Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry. Eligible trials were phase III studies that included an HRQL outcome. Data were abstracted on eight outcomes derived from previously recommended quality standards for reporting HRQL, and on four outcomes describing how HRQL data are presented in RCT reports. Two readers examined each article; discrepancies were resolved through discussion and third review if required.

A sample of 794 RCTs was identified. HRQL was a primary outcome in 25.4% (200/794). One hundred and ten RCTs (14%) used “”supplementary”" reports (separate from the first publication) to report HRQL findings. The proportion of RCTs that met the eight quality indicators ranged from 15% (HRQL used in the calculation of sample size) to 81% (reporting instrument validity). RCTs with HRQL as a primary outcome or with a supplementary report had higher concordance on the quality measures. Reporting improved on many indicators over time. Substantive variation in how HRQL data are presented in RCTs was evident.

53 +/- 1 00 cm(2)) were less accurately sized than defects on eit

53 +/- 1.00 cm(2)) were less accurately sized than defects on either of the condyles (p < 0.01). The areas of PX-478 concentration defects that were <2 cm(2) were overestimated (mean, 0.21 +/- 0.65 cm(2)) compared with other sizes of defects (p < 0.001), and the areas of defects that were >4 cm(2) were underestimated (mean, -0.87 +/- 1.83 cm(2)) compared with other defects (p < 0.001).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our current treatment algorithms rely heavily on the size of a cartilage

defect, but only 57% of the measurements in this study would have accurately led to the appropriate surgical procedure. There is a need to evaluate and quantify the size of a lesion more appropriately than current standards eFT508 allow and potentially revise existing

treatment algorithms.”
“Background: Physical functioning is without restriction in most pediatric heart transplant survivors, but only limited data are available about neuropsychologic outcomes in these children. in this study we assess neurodevelopmental outcomes in transplant survivors in comparison to population norms.

Methods: Neuropsychologic evaluations were performed 12 to 24 months (mean 16 months) post-transplant in 21 children ranging in age from I to 101 months (median 15 months) at time of transplant. Outcomes included verbal, non-verbal and overall intelligence; visual-motor integration skills; and adaptive functioning.

Results: Transplant recipients had a mean overall IQ of 86.7, verbal IQ of 88.4 and non-verbal IQ of 87.5, all significantly Autophagy Compound Library solubility dmso below the normative population mean of 100 (p < 0.01). Thirty-eight to 43% of subjects had low IQ scores (i.e., <85), significantly more than the normative 16% base rate (p < 0.02). Children with an initial diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) had lower overall IQ (mean 78.6) than those with cardiomyopathy

(mean 91.7). The mean expressive language score was 88.1, significantly below norms (p < 0.01), with 46% having low scores (p = 0.01). Receptive language was normal in the same patients (mean 96.8). Finally, 63% of patients had visual-motor deficits and 48% had fine motor deficits (p < 0.005 compared with norms).

Conclusions: Although many pediatric heart transplant recipients display normal neurodevelopmental functioning, this population is at increased risk for cognitive difficulties, especially in expressive language, visual-motor integration and fine motor skills. Children with CHD may be at especially high risk. Early identification and intervention are essential to promote optimal neuropsychologic outcomes and overall quality of life in pediatric heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28: 1306-11. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

0 for absorption sample solution, and 50% ethanol with pH 2 0 as

0 for absorption sample solution, and 50% ethanol with pH 2.0 as desorption solvent. The extraction and enrichment process established here can be easily and effectively achieved, and the content of phenolics in the resulting extracts can reach 669.35 +/- 19.50 mg GAE/g. Moreover. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities were significantly increased in the resulting extracts. This is the first time to study the enrichment

of phenolics with macroporous resin chromatography from pomegranate leaves. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

This review focuses on the role of interventional venous sampling in the diagnosis and localization of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), selleck chemicals llc and its role in relation to conventional and novel imaging techniques.

Recent findings

Imaging of NETs has evolved together with advances in imaging technology. Imaging localization

plays an important role in the subsequent management of these tumours. This article provides an overview of the application of venous sampling in the localization of NETs, presented with current evidence to support its continued role selleck inhibitor in the diagnostic work-up of pituitary, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal and ovarian endocrine disease.


Interventional venous sampling continues to be a highly sensitive modality in the localization of NETs. Although significant advances in noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging modalities have reduced the reliance

of this well established technique, the latest literature continues to support its important role in the diagnostic armament of these unique and rare tumours.”
“An extrusion-based encapsulation process has been developed for making salt grain-sized iron premix for salt fortification. learn more The first step of extrusion agglomeration process has been studied and reported previously. The focus of this study is on the optimisation of the colour-masking and polymer coating steps. Several colour-masking techniques and polymer encapsulants were investigated at various encapsulation levels. Salt samples prepared by blending the resulting iron premixes with iodised salt retained more than 90% of the original iodine and more than 93% of the ferrous iron after 3 months storage at 35 degrees C and 60% relative humidity (RH). Hydrophilic coatings such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) offered more protection at the 10% encapsulation level compared to other coating materials studied. All iron premix formulations exhibited high particle density, good bioavailability and acceptable organoleptic properties. The process using the most effective formulations and optimised operation parameters is ready for pilot scale testing and field studies.

Recent studies revealed the important role of Wnt signaling in ma

Recent studies revealed the important role of Wnt signaling in maintaining carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis. Activation of the Frizzled/LRP receptor complex leads to increase in the activity of transcription factors and nuclear receptors that regulate expression of genes involved in lipid utilization (PPAR delta, RAR, LXR) and inhibits adipogenesis. The Wnt signaling pathway is also involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about mechanisms that regulate canonical Wnt signaling and its role in cell metabolism regulation.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to identify physiological and

psychosocial variables predicting the HRQoL among Korean people with chronic respiratory

disease (CRD).

DESIGN: A cross-sectional correlation study was done with a convenience sample LBH589 ic50 of 112 participants (aged 62.9 +/- 1.2.9 years, forced expiratory check details volume in 1 second [FEV(1)%] predicted = 52.3 +/- 20.2) from the out-patient respiratory clinic of a large university hospital in Korea. HRQoL was measured using the chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRDQ). To identify the influencing factors, physiological (lung function, dyspnoea, symptom experience and exercise performance) and psychological (mood states and self-efficacy) variables were examined using path analysis.

RESULTS: Participants had a moderate level of HRQoL, with the lowest scores in CRDQ-fatigue (3.3 +/- 1.3) and the highest in CRDQ-mastery (5.2 +/- 1.0). Anxiety and a depressive mood state (-0.38) exerted the highest influence on HRQoL, followed by self-efficacy (0.36), dyspnoea (-0.27), exercise performance (0.22) and respiratory symptoms (-0.17).

CONCLUSION: Our findings emphasise the importance of a multidimensional therapeutic approach to improve HRQoL. Comprehensive interventions, including enhanced exercise performance, self-efficacy and symptom management, should be considered to improve HRQoL in Koreans

with CRD.”
“Purpose Up until now there were no specific questionnaire translated into Spanish for evaluating urinary disorder specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated INCB024360 with multiple sclerosis (MS). Qualiveen is recommended by the European Association of Urology guidelines as a tool for evaluating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. The objective was to translate the Qualiveen into Spanish, adapt it cross-culturally and validate it against the currently available tools. Materials and Methods: A bidirectional translation of Qualiveen was undertaken by professional translators. One hundred two Spanish MS patients were sent the Qualiveen and the ICIQ-SF questionnaires twice within a month. The questionnaires were sent and received by mail and reviewed when the patients came for the scheduled visit. Results: Eighty-one patients participated.

This unique window of analysis indicates a progressive hypoxia du

This unique window of analysis indicates a progressive hypoxia during coasting mixed with an increase in apoptosis and inflammation. Potential signaling pathways leading to competence have been identified and will require downstream testing. This preliminary analysis supports the potential role of the follicular differentiation in oocyte quality both during competence increase and decrease phases.”
“Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study

Selleckchem C646 tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n = 6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30 mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40 mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n = 6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression selleck of LH receptor (LHR)

and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was

higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of SC75741 ic50 LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH.”
“The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of the crystallin, alpha B (Cryab) gene in mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. There was no detectable Cryab mRNA signal on days 1-4 of pregnancy. On day 5 of pregnancy when embryo implanted, a high level of Cryab mRNA signal was found in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst. On days 6-8, Cryab mRNA was strongly expressed in the primary decidua.