Within each treatment group, the mean clinical score was determined daily, thereby yielding the mean clinical score for that treatment group. Mice were followed clinically for up to 40 days after disease induction. Rotorod behavioral assay Motor behavior was tested up to two times per week for each
mouse using a rotorod apparatus (Med Associates, Inc., St. Albans, VT). Briefly, animals were placed on a rotating horizontal cylinder for a maximum of 200 sec. The Ruxolitinib order amount of time the mouse remained walking on the cylinder without falling was recorded. Each mouse was tested on a speed of 3–30 rpm and given three trials for any given day. The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical three trials were averaged to report a single value for an individual mouse, and averages were then calculated for all animals within a given treatment group. The first two trial days prior to immunization (day 0) served as practice trials. Immune responses Spleens were harvested during deep anesthesia with isoflurane prior to Tofacitinib JAK3 perfusion. Splenocytes were stimulated with the autoantigen MOG 35–55 peptide at 25 μg/mL. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Supernatants were collected after 48 and 72 h, and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and interleukin (IL)-5 were determined by Searchlight (Aushon, Billerica, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical MA), as described previously (Tiwari-Woodruff et al. 2007). Histopathology and immunohistochemistry Formalin-fixed coronal
brain sections containing the CC, in addition to thoracic spinal cord were examined by immunohistochemistry using various series of cell type-specific antibodies, as previously described (Tiwari-Woodruff et al. 2007). In parallel, the CC was dissected and subjected to electron microscopy (EM) as previously described Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Crawford et al. 2010). The following antibodies were used for immunohistochemistry to detect: axons: anti-neurofilament (NF200) (1:500, Millipore: MAB1621 and 1:1000, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO: N4142); astrocytes: anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (1:1000, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Millipore,
Billerica, MA: 180063); oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitors (OLPs): anti-oligodendorcyte transcription factor 2 (olig2) (Millipore: AB9610) + anti-Ki67 (Millipore: AB9260); mature OLs: anti-CC1 (adenomatus polyposis coli, a mature OL marker) (1:1000, Gene Tex, Irvine, CA: GTX16794); PLP_EGFP fluorescence; myelin: anti-myelin basic protein Dacomitinib (MBP) (1:1000, Millipore: MAB386, Abcam: 32760); T cells: anti-CD3 (1:1000, Abcam, Cambridge, MA: AB5690); microglia/macrophage/monocyte: leukocyte antigen marker anti-CD45 (1:500; Millipore: CBL1326, BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA: 550539), and damaged axons: anti-amyloid precursor protein (APP; Abcam: AB11132). The fluorescently tagged secondary antibody step was performed by labeling with antibodies conjugated to TRITC/Cy3 (Millipore: AP124C, AP132C), and Cy5 (Millipore: AP181S; AP187S). IgG-control experiments were performed for all primary antibodies and no staining was observed under these conditions.