Comparison of the NMR data ( Table 1) of 1 with those

Comparison of the NMR data ( Table 1) of 1 with those see more of 2 suggested that the only difference was the presence of one additional glucopyranosyl

group in 1, and this was supported by the presence of more units of 162 in the molecular formula of 1 than that of 2. All the proton and carbon signals for compound 2 were assigned using 2D NMR spectra ( Fig. 1). Therefore, compound 2 could be established to be (20S,23R)-3β-hydroxy-12β,23-epoxy-dammar-24-ene 20-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (notoginsenoside-LY). Compound 3 was obtained as white amorphous powder. It was determined to have a molecular formula of C58H98O26 based on a [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 1233.6235 (calculated for C58H98O26Na, 1233.6244) in the HRESIMS. The IR spectrum showed absorption bands for hydroxyl (3426 cm−1) and olefinic carbons (1650 cm−1). The 1H NMR spectrum ( Table 1) showed eight methyl groups [δ 0.78 (3H, s), 0.93 (3H, s), 1.63 (3H, s), 1.61 (3H, s), 1.64 (3H, s), 1.26 (3H, s), 1.09 (3H, s), 0.94 (3H, s)], one olefinic proton [δ 5.31 (1H, m)], two oxygen substituted Cobimetinib molecular weight protons [δ 3.28 (1H, dd, J = 11.4, 4.2 Hz), 3.62 (1H, m)], and five anomeric protons [δ 4.93 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 5.52 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 5.43 (1H, d, J = 6.6 Hz), 5.14 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz),

5.00 (1H, d, J = 6.0 Hz)]. The 13C NMR ( Table 1) showed 58 carbon signals including a pair of olefinic carbons at C-24 (δc 125.8) and C-25 (δc 131.0). The chemical structure of 3 was further elucidated by a HMBC ( Fig. 1) experiment, in which the following correlations were observed from H-3 (δH 3.28, 1H, dd, J = 11.4, 4.2 Hz) to C-1Glc (δc 104.7); H-1Glc′ (δH 5.52, 1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz) to C-2Glc (δc 82.9); H-1xyl (δH 5.43, 1H, d, J = 6.6 Hz) to C-2Glc′ (δc 84.3); H-1Glc″ (δH 5.14, 1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz) to C-20

(δc 83.4); and H-1Ara (δH 5.00, 1H, d, J = 6.0 Hz) to C-6Glc″ (δc 69.1). The NMR data for the tetracyclic part of the aglycone and the glycosyl moieties linked to C-3 of aglycone were similar to those of notoginsenoside Fa [15], and glycosyl moieties linked to C-20 of aglycone were almost indistinguishable from those of ginsenoside Rb2 [17]. The sugar moieties Cytidine deaminase of 3 were determined to be D-glucose (Glc), D-xylose (Xyl), and L-arabinose (Ara) [tR (min): 26.60, 8.86, and 6.23] by GC. The standard monosaccharides were subjected to the same reaction and GC analysis under the same condition. Retention times were consistent. Five anomeric protons were observed at δ 4.93 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 5.52 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 5.43 (1H, d, J = 6.6 Hz), 5.14 (1H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), and 5.00 (1H, d, J = 6.0 Hz).

Then, the teeth were randomly divided into 13 groups of four teet

Then, the teeth were randomly divided into 13 groups of four teeth

each according to the time and substances used. The substances used were 17% EDTA (Biodinâmica, Ibiporã, PR, Brazil), 10% citric acid (Formulativa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil), 37% phosphoric acid solution Bosutinib mouse (COPPE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil), and 37% phosphoric acid gel (Condac, Joinville, SC, Brazil). The irrigation protocols and experimental time periods used in this study are described in Table 1, and 1 mL of substance was used without replacement. After the removal of the smear layer, all teeth were irrigated again with 5 mL distilled water and dried with medium-sized paper points (Endopoints, Paraiba do Sul, RJ, Brazil). Finally, two longitudinal grooves were prepared on both buccal and lingual surfaces by using a diamond disc without penetrating the canal. The roots were then split into two halves with a hammer

and chisel. For each root, the half containing the most visible part of the apex was used for study. The ALK inhibitor samples were coated with gold and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (JSM 6460 LV; JEOL, Tokyo, Japan). All samples were numbered, and the images were performed without knowledge of the group tested. First, a scan of all samples was made at 30× magnification for each group. Then, the most representative area of each third of each tooth was selected and magnified at 100×. Each 100× image was scanned, and the three most representative areas were magnified at 2,000×. For example, if the image of 100× showed 70% of the surface covered with smear layer, two images with smear layer and one without were selected. Therefore, three

images of each third were obtained selleckchem for each tooth, providing nine images per tooth and 36 images per group (n = 4). In the end, each group had 12 images for the three thirds. To evaluate the degree of smear layer removal, the scoring system described by Takeda et al (16) was used but with modifications. Briefly, score 1 = no smear layer, with all tubules cleaned and opened; score 2 = few areas covered by smear layer, with most tubules cleaned and opened; score 3 = smear layer covering almost all the surface, with few tubules opened; and score 4 = smear layer covering all the surfaces. It was a blinded evaluation performed by three independent observers. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability for the SEM evaluation was verified by Kappa test. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p < 0.05). The Kappa test showed good agreement between observers, with values of 0.9 or above. Figure 1 shows representative images of the scores. The results of the smear layer scores for each group are listed in Table 2. At 30 seconds, citric acid solution, phosphoric acid solution, and phosphoric acid gel were more effective than EDTA and control group for the apical and middle thirds.

The populations of other Asian countries suffer from a similar ra

The populations of other Asian countries suffer from a similar rabies burden and as in India dogs are the principal reservoir. In China, for example, the number of human infections has increased exponentially over the last 15 years, attributed to an under resourced veterinary infrastructure, lack of knowledge of transmission dynamics, inefficient dog control and poor vaccination coverage (Hu et al., 2009). Of the estimated 130 million dogs in China, more than half are in rural areas;

as a result, human rabies is a major public health problem (Montgomery et al., 2012). Recent studies of canine rabies dynamics in China have estimated LY2109761 in vivo a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2, and predicted that, even though human cases are now decreasing, they will rise again before 2030 if measures are not taken to reduce the dog population and increase vaccination coverage ( Zhang et al., 2011). In neighboring Nepal, a coordinated approach has been taken with veterinary laboratories positioned in key areas across the country ( Fig. 1). Virus isolates genetically typed from Nepal illustrate how the regular movement of disease across land borders precludes implementation of efficient control and prevention strategies. Interestingly, a comparison of reported cases with active surveillance

and models of rabies incidence based on dog bites suggest that the true incidence of rabies may be 100 times what is reported to authorities ( Knobel et al., 2005 and Pant et al., 2011).

As well as being problematic to the local population, the threat Stem Cell Compound Library concentration of rabies has been identified as a key environmental hazard for travelers to the area ( Boggild et al., 2007 and Pandey et al., 2002). At least in Nepal, the almost veterinary services are in a position, with the necessary support, to establish a surveillance network using existing facilities ( Fig. 1). To reduce rabies in humans, authorities should make the control and prevention of canine rabies a public health priority (Meslin and Briggs, 2013). The overall national strategy should include improved animal surveillance through laboratory diagnosis, a more rapid response to human exposures (with provision of post exposure prophylaxis, PEP) and education of the public and health care providers (Montgomery et al., 2012 and Meslin et al., 2013). The supply and quality of human rabies vaccines have also been a problem in China; the use of counterfeit vaccines has caused fatalities and reduced the population’s willingness to be vaccinated (Hu et al., 2008). The rabies situation in Cambodia is especially tragic. Because access to PEP is rare, patients are usually not hospitalized following dog bites, and die in their homes (Ly et al., 2009). In 2007, the estimated number of deaths from rabies exceeded those from malaria and dengue.

Additionally, we analyzed global reading measures and local readi

Additionally, we analyzed global reading measures and local reading measures Tanespimycin concentration on target words in the filler stimuli (fillers during the reading task and errors during the

proofreading task), comparing them between the two experiments, to assess the relative difficulty of proofreading for nonword errors and proofreading for wrong word errors. The method of Experiment 2 was identical to the method for Experiment 1 with the following exceptions. A different set of 48 subjects, with the same selection criteria as Experiment 1 participated in Experiment 2. The stimuli in Experiment 2 were identical to those in Experiment 1 except for the words that constituted errors in the proofreading task. Error stimuli were produced by selecting the transposition letter neighbor of the target word (from Johnson, 2009), which was inappropriate in the sentence context (e.g., trail produced trial; “The runners trained for the marathon on the trial behind the high school.”). Using these items from Johnson (2009) in both experiments meant that the base words from which the errors were formed were controlled across experiments for length, frequency, number of orthographic neighbors, number of syllables and fit into the sentence. Thus, the only difference between experiments was whether the transposition error happened to produce a real word. The procedure was identical to Experiment

1 except that, in the proofreading learn more block, subjects were instructed that they would be “looking for misspelled

words that spell check cannot catch. That is, these misspellings happened to produce an actual word but not the word that the writer intended.” and there were 5 practice trials (three errors) preceding the proofreading block instead of 3. As in Experiment 1, subjects performed very well both on the comprehension questions (93% correct) and in the proofreading task (91% Doxorubicin in vitro correct; Table 3). In addition to overall accuracy, we used responses in the proofreading task to calculate d′ scores (the difference between the z-transforms of the hit rate and the false alarm rate; a measure of error detection) for each subject and compared them between experiments using an independent samples t test. Proofreading accuracy was significantly higher in Experiment 1 (M = 3.05, SE = .065) than in Experiment 2 (M = 2.53, SE = .073; t(93) = 5.37, p < .001), indicating that checking for real words that were inappropriate in the sentence context was more difficult than checking for spelling errors that produce nonwords. As with the analyses of Experiment 1 (when subjects were checking for nonwords) we analyzed reading measures on the target words in the frequency (e.g., metal/alloy) or predictability (weeds/roses) manipulation sentences when they were encountered in Experiment 2 (when subjects were checking for wrong words) to determine whether the type of error subjects anticipated changed the way they used different word properties (i.e.

77 ± 21 68 (p = 0 01), and it differed significantly from the pla

77 ± 21.68 (p = 0.01), and it differed significantly from the placebo group (p = 0.04). In the KRG group, the OSDI-symptom subtotal improved the most, from 35.42 ± 16.42 to 23.40 ± 18.65 (p < 0.01), which was thought to affect the greater part of the total OSDI score improvement. Compared to the baseline, six of the 12 items were significantly improved in the KRG group after the 8-week supplementation:

three items (painful eye, blurred vision, Screening Library chemical structure and poor vision) of the OSDI-symptom; two items of OSDI-function (driving at night and working with a computer); and one item (feeling uncomfortable in air-conditioned areas). In addition, five of these items, except blurred vision, displayed significant differences between the KRG and placebo groups. Patients with full-blown glaucoma suffer from the disease itself. However, most patients, particularly those in the early to moderate stages of glaucoma, complain more about their dry eye symptoms caused by topical glaucoma Selleckchem INCB018424 medication until the disease progressed. Many earlier studies reported that patients with glaucoma suffer a higher prevalence of ocular surface disease than the normal population [7], [8], [9] and [10]. Leung et al [10] found that 59% of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) reported dry eye symptoms, whereas severe symptoms were noted by 27% of these

patients. The authors concluded that a large proportion of the patients with OAG or OHT had signs and/or symptoms of dry eye, and that the presence of dry eye and the use of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing medications may affect quality of life. Our study similarly demonstrated that dry eye is prevalent in patients treated for glaucoma by showing that almost all the participants had OSDI scores consistent with the presence of dry eye symptoms. The cause of DES in patients with glaucoma is thought to be multifactorial and may include an active ingredient and

a preservative, most commonly BAK [9] and [32]. Several previous studies MRIP reported that BAK may cause inflammation and potentially other ocular diseases, including allergy, blepharitis, DES, and anatomical eyelid abnormalities [33] and [34]. The prolonged use of preserved topical drugs is an extrinsic cause of increased tear evaporation, which induces a toxic response from the ocular surface. BAK has a well-known dose-dependent toxicity and is most commonly used as a preservative in ophthalmic solutions, particularly in antiglaucoma eye drops [33] and [35]. Its cellular toxicity has been demonstrated experimentally in in vitro studies of conjunctiva-derived and corneal cells [36] and [37]. BAK induces the expression of inflammatory cell markers at the ocular surface [38] and causes epithelial cell damage, apoptotic cell death, and a decrease in goblet cell density, resulting in tear film instability and tear hyperosmolarity [39] and [40].

A number of earlier proposals made on the nature of prehistoric a

A number of earlier proposals made on the nature of prehistoric and historical agricultural impacts on UK river catchments based on qualitative or individual-site observations can be evaluated using this quantitative evidence from a country-wide database. The oldest AA units in the UK date to the Early Bronze Age (c. 4400 cal. BP) and there is an apparent 1500

year lag between the adoption of agriculture (c. 6000 cal. BP) in the UK and any impact click here on floodplain sedimentation. The earliest environmental human impacts on river channel and floodplain systems in the UK may have been hydrological rather than sedimentological. The mediaeval period is confirmed as an important one for the accelerated sedimentation of fine-grained materials, notably in the smallest catchments. There are some apparent regional differences in the timing of AA formation with earlier prehistoric dates in central and selleck inhibitor southern parts of the UK. Finally, the approach

and criteria we use here for identifying AA could be readily applied in any river environment where fluvial units have radiometric dating control. This would enable both the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural sediment signals in catchments to be better understood and modelled than they are at present. We thank the Welsh Government and the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales for funding this study through the support of the Centre for Catchment and Coastal Research at Aberystwyth University. We are also grateful to Hans Middelkoop and the three referees who reviewed our paper for their helpful comments and to the many authors who freely made available Oxalosuccinic acid their published and unpublished 14C ages listed in Table 3. “
“Terraces are among the most evident human signatures on the landscape, and they cover large areas of the Earth (Fig. 1). The purpose of terracing and its effect on hydrological processes depend on geology and soil properties (Grove and Rackham, 2003), but they are generally built to retain more water and soil, to reduce both hydrological connectivity

and erosion (Lasanta et al., 2001, Cammeraat, 2004 and Cots-Folch et al., 2006), to allow machinery and ploughs to work in better conditions, to make human work in the slopes easy and comfortable, and to promote irrigation. Terraces reduce the slope gradient and length, facilitating cultivation on steep slopes. They increase water infiltration in areas with moderate to low soil permeability (Van Wesemael et al., 1998 and Yuan et al., 2003), controlling the overland flow (quantity) and velocity (energy), thereby leading to a reduction in soil erosion (Gachene et al., 1997, Wakindiki and Ben-Hur, 2002, Louwagie et al., 2011 and Li et al., 2012), with positive effects on agricultural activities.

12 Thus, the knowledge of pediatricians for the prevention of the

12 Thus, the knowledge of pediatricians for the prevention of these forms of maltreatment may indirectly contribute to the prevention of AHT, and vice versa. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). The authors Carfilzomib solubility dmso declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common clinical condition in newborns. Between 8% and 11% of neonates develop significant hyperbilirubinemia, defined as total serum bilirubin (TSB) above the 95th percentile for age (high-risk zone) during the first week of life.1 The levels of TSB

rise to the high-risk zone, leading to long-term consequences, including bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and kernicterus.2 Despite the advent of phototherapy and exchange transfusion, kernicterus continues to be reported worldwide, especially in developing countries.3 Therefore, the identification of infants at risk of developing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has become particularly important.4 There are many factors that could account for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, including ABO or Rh incompatibilities, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and pyruvate kinase, hereditary spherocytosis, defective hemoglobin synthesis, hypothyroidism, breast milk jaundice, and cephalohematoma, among others.5 Several clinical genetic disorders influence

bilirubin physiology. The UDP-glycosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1), and solute carrier organic anion transporter family enzymes organic anion transporter polypeptide 2 (OATP2) are responsible for glucuronidation and cellular uptake of bilirubin, respectively, and DAPT in vivo play an important role in regulating the bilirubin levels.6 OATP2 is located on the basolateral (sinusoidal) membrane of human hepatocytes, and is encoded by the gene of the

solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1). Recent studies have suggested that the variations 388 G>A, 521 T>C, and 463 C>A of the SLCO1B1 gene may predispose subjects to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia by limiting hepatic bilirubin uptake.7 They vary in different populations, with a high prevalence of the 388 G>A (73.4%) and 521 T>C (14.0%) variants occurring in Chinese Ribonucleotide reductase subjects.8 A 16% prevalence of the 463 C>A variant has been reported in Europeans and Americans.9 Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is known to occur more frequently and to be more severe in Asians than in whites.10 The authors hypothesized that SLCO1B1 mutation may be one of the risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, which possibly accounts for the variability in prevalence rates among different ethnic groups. The role of SLCO1B1 gene in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is still controversial. Thus, the objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the impact of the three variants (388 G>A, 521 T>C, 463 C>A) of SLCO1B1 on hyperbilirubinemia in neonates of different ethnicities.

One potential mechanism, mentioned in the article by Alves et al

One potential mechanism, mentioned in the article by Alves et al.,2 is an adaptation in lipid metabolism. In 2000, we reported that stunted children from shantytowns in São Paulo, Brazil metabolized lipids at a lower rate than normal height children from the same socioeconomic environment, independent of dietary intake and other confounding factors.10 A similar study, conducted with male subjects from the Hertfordshire Cohort in England, observed that men who had suffered intrauterine growth restriction

had a lower rate of lipid oxidation when compared those born with normal weight.11 Finally, Selleck LY294002 an elegant study that blended human nutrition and anthropology was conducted with adults from Buryat tribes in Southern Siberia, who suffered seasonal undernutrition after the collapse of the Soviet Union.12 The repeated bouts of food insecurity and poor physical growth were so severe that the generation born in this period was shorter

at adulthood than their parents. Metabolic studies of this generation observed that adults who were significantly shorter than their peers had a lower rate of lipid oxidation, controlling for body composition. Thus, based on these three studies of humans from vastly different geographical and socio-economic areas, a consistent observation is that those DNA Synthesis inhibitor who experienced some degree of growth retardation in utero or during early development present with a metabolic profile that favors fat accumulation during times of dietary excess. In fact, stunted children with impaired fat oxidation gained more central fat during a four-year follow-up period, independent of total fat mass and pubertal status.

13 Regarding the relationship between poor growth and other aspects of lipid metabolism, epidemiological studies have reported that adults who experience intrauterine growth retardation are more likely to suffer from atherogenic lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease than those who developed normally.14 and 15 Perhaps the most significant finding much by Alves et al.2 was the fact that despite benefiting from an intensive treatment program, the children studied only experienced improvements in their lipid profiles for some, but not all, of the parameters assessed. It was also astutely hypothesized that the increased TG concentrations reported may be the result of low LPL expression. These observations warrant explicit attention and the data presented should be further studied in order to develop a more comprehensive assessment of the nature of the lipid profiles in the subjects, including a comparison with a healthy control group of children and/or including measures of dietary factors that may contribute to plasma lipid concentrations. Florencio et al.16 observed that short, obese women had significantly greater total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations compared to normal height, obese women.

In accordance with previous reports, in our study early post resu

In accordance with previous reports, in our study early post resuscitation phase was characterized by significant abnormalities in microvascular flow.14 This returns to normal within the next 24 h. Donadello et al. observed in TTM33 a MFI of 2.1 (±0.5) in the first 12 h after ICU admission and an MFI of 2.8 (0.2) after 24–48 h. In our study the TTM36 group seemed to have a slightly higher MFI in comparison to the TTM33 group, but this was not statistically significant. Moreover, in both groups MFI normalized over time. Hypothermia does not seem to have a relation with microvascular alterations. Van Genderen et al.15 investigated

the microcirculatory perfusion and alterations and concluded that the abnormalities in sublingual microcirculation were independent of systemic hemodynamics and suggested that the observed alterations were probably due to hypothermia-induced XL184 datasheet vasoconstriction. However, the fact that in our data microcirculatory alterations were not different between two target-temperatures, suggests alternative causes, although

a targeted temperature of 36 °C may be considered hypothermia to some extent In septic patients it is known that presence and persistence of alterations in tissue oxygenation (StO2) in the first 24 h are associated with worse outcome.4 Donadello et al.14 found no changes in StO2 over time during hypothermia. In our study we observed a significant difference at time point 1 (start study) between groups; StO2 was significantly lower Tolmetin in TTM36 as Vemurafenib datasheet compared to TTM33 (59.8 (±13.7) and 44.6 (±15.8), p = 0.03). But this difference disappeared after 12 and 24 h. A higher StO2 in the TTM33 group may be explained by a lower oxygen consumption in response to hypothermia. Alternatively, a higher

StO2 may be present during shunting. Since the catchment area of the StO2 probe incorporates both capillary and venous blood, this cannot be ruled out, and is in line with the observed higher lactate levels. However, the data on the microcirculation, especially the MFI, which was found to be low in these patients, did not support shunting as an explanation for the increase in StO2 and lactate. An alternative explanation for the higher lactate levels in TTM33 could be metabolic: the liver might not be able to metabolize sufficient lactate under conditions of hypothermia. It is of note, however that the difference in StO2 between groups disappeared over time despite maintenance of the target temperature level during this observation period. This may be in line with the concept of oxygen deficit and oxygen debt. An initial greater misbalance between oxygen delivery and consumption in the TTM36 maybe reflected by a prolonged recovery period of the StO2.

In this study, we propose a new role of Helios in the BCR-mediate

In this study, we propose a new role of Helios in the BCR-mediated apoptosis and O2−-generating activity in immature B lymphocytes. Lymphocyte development requires numerous transcription factors [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7] and [8]. Among them, Ikaros family proteins with zinc finger motif are essential for normal lymphoid cell differentiation and proliferation

[5], [6], [9] and [10]. For example, lack of Ikaros in the hematopoietic cells leads to complete block in differentiation selleck chemicals llc to both B and T lymphocytes [21]. In addition, their abnormalities cause several lymphoid malignancies such as leukemias and SP600125 nmr lymphomas [6], [11], [12] and [13]. Helios, one of the Ikaros family proteins, is preferentially expressed in T lymphocytes [9], [20], [21], [22] and [23]. Moreover, transgenic expression of Helios in B lymphocytes alters their properties and promotes lymphomagenesis, suggesting that silencing of Helios is critical for normal function of B lymphocytes [24]. In agreement with previous reports in B lymphocytes [9], [25] and [29], the steady-state level of Helios mRNA was very low in DT40 (see many PCR cycle

numbers in Fig. 1C). On the other hand, Ikaros family proteins are generally known to be dimerized with other family members or themselves [9]. The Helios gene is transcribed as various isoforms by alternative splicing in a similar manner as other Ikaros family proteins [9], [13] and [25]. The short forms lacking the zinc-finger motif can behave as dominant negative isoforms upon heterodimerization [9] and [13]. Since Helios is able to heterodimerize with Ikaros or Aiolos [9],

[20] and [22], we thought that Helios plays a role as a modulator of other Ikaros family proteins, in spite of its very low levels in B lymphocytes. However, little is known about the physiological function of Helios in B lymphocytes. Using gene targeting techniques in DT40, we could study the Staurosporine manufacturer physiological functions of various genes in immature B lymphocytes without the influences of other developmental stages, unlike knock-out mice. To clarify in vivo roles of Helios in immature B lymphocytes, we first generated homozygous DT40 mutant, Helios−/−, devoid of two alleles of the Helios gene ( Fig. 1). Aiolos-deficiency caused alterations in the expressions of several genes: bak, caspase-9, inhibitor of CAD and PKCs (PKC-α, PKC-β, PKC-δ, PKC-ε, PKC-η and PKC-ζ) [19]. In order to examine whether or not Helios participates in the expressions of these genes, we first carried out semiquantitative RT-PCR on total RNAs prepared from Helios−/−, Aiolos−/− and DT40.