On the other hand, we observed the reduction in the number of diurnal visits without drinking in females. It may be so that the exploratory drive is reduced or that the corners are more aversive
for the BPA-treated female mice. In Tofacitinib supplier addition, the longer stays at corners seen in BPA-exposed males might be a consequence of perseverance to rewards. Wolstenholme et al., reported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that juvenile mice, gestationaly exposed to BPA, spent more time sitting next to each other, but less time engaging in direct interaction, compared with control mice (Wolstenholme et al. 2012). In addition, gestational exposure to BPA altered contact behavior (nose-to-nose contact and approaching) in juvenile mice. The alterations in social behavior were not sexually dimorphic but influenced by in utero BPA exposure (Wolstenholme et al. 2011, 2012). In the present study, the visit interval following preceding animals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in BPA males was shorter than that of control males, which suggested that BPA-exposed males might be influenced by surrounding animals more
than the control animals. Furthermore, this influence might appear more intensely in reward-related situations. The results of our Preference Bias and Preference Variance analysis suggested a similar disposition. BPA-exposed males showed a larger Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Preference Bias than control males and a Preference Variance comparable to control males. From a mathematical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical viewpoint, given a larger Preference Bias, a comparable Preference Variance means stronger cohesiveness. The important finding of our study was that prenatal and lactational BPA exposure might affect mice motivational behavior in a social setting differently in males and females. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Further studies are necessary to evaluate
the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral effects of prenatal and lactation exposure to low doses of BPA. Conclusion Prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA-altered mice motivational behavior in a social setting using IntelliCage, which might be related with perturbed reward pathway. Further biochemical analysis of brains from the Oxymatrine tested mice could provide more information to substantiate our present results. Acknowledgments This study was supported by JSPS-KAKENHI, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (20310036 to S. F.) and the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment (S2-12 to S. F.), Japanese National Government. Conflict of Interest None declared.
Speech processing is a multistage operation that engages several cortical regions in the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Evidence from anatomical and functional neuroimaging studies supports the view that speech is processed along hierarchically organized streams (Scott and Johnsrude 2003; Hickok and Poeppel 2007; Davis et al. 2011; Lerner et al. 2011).