, 2000). On the other hand, NO inhibits surfactant gene expression in primary cultures of type II cells (Lee et al., 2005). It remains to be investigated whether SP-A increases the expression of Arg1 to inhibit NO production in macrophages. Mtb-infected macrophages are able to induce Arg1 expression in non-infected neighboring macrophages by an autocrine–paracrine cytokine-mediated pathway (Qualls et al., 2010). In this scenario, it is reasonable to suggest that Arg1 production by type II cells in TB lungs could be mediated by paracrine signaling from macrophages. Our results suggest that Arg1 expression
by macrophages in human lungs of patients with TB could play a role in the disease. We thank Bruno Mietto (Instituto de Ciências this website Biomédicas – UFRJ) and Prof. Dr. Jorge José de Carvalho (Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia – UERJ) for technical assistance. This work was supported by grant from Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ). “
“The importance of CD8+ T cells in the control of viral infections is well established. However, what differentiates CD8+ T cell responses in individuals who control infection and those who do not is not well understood. ‘Functional sensitivity’ describes an important quality
of the T cell response and is determined selleck chemicals llc in part by the affinity of the T cell receptor for antigen. A more sensitive T cell response is generally believed to be more efficient and associated with better control of viral infection, yet may also drive viral mutation and immune escape. Various in vitro techniques have been used to measure T cell sensitivity; however, rapid ex vivo analysis of this has
been made possible by the application of the ‘magic’ tetramer technology. Such tools have potentially important applications in the design and evaluation of vaccines. T cells play an important role in containment of persistent viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). For example, depletion studies in models of both HCV  and HIV  have demonstrated the importance of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the control of virus replication. Additionally, Levetiracetam immunogenetic studies reveal an important impact of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II genes, such as HLA B27 and B57, on disease outcome . There has been extensive characterization of the CD8 T cell response in acute and chronic HCV  and HIV  infections, comparing responses in those who control infection to those in whom disease progresses. However, comprehensive understanding of what determines a successful as opposed to an unsuccessful response requires more precise analysis of the mechanisms involved. This endeavour is important in the development of immunotherapy and vaccines.