Conclusions: Voiding cystourethrography performed with adequate preparation check details and support can be tolerated without sedation. Children in the process of toilet training and females tolerate the procedure least.”
“Purpose. To determine the role of TGF-beta 1 in the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5) differentiation and integrity. Methods. RGC-5 cells were differentiated in media
conditioned by human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE) for 4 days before treatment with TGF-beta 1 for 24 h. Cells were examined for morphological changes and harvested for western blot and real-time PCR analysis. For study of apoptosis, differentiated RGC-5 cells were grown in serum-free medium for 24 h in the presence or absence of TGF-beta
1 and collected for Annexin V/Propidium iodide FACs analysis. The role of MAPK pathways in TGF-beta 1-dependent signaling was determined by treatment with specific inhibitors of ERK, JNK and p38. Results. Differentiation of RGC-5 cells in HNPE-conditioned media (CM) increased the neural cell markers, Brn-3c, NF-160, Thy1.2, Tau and PGP9.5. Treatment with TGF-beta 1 significantly increased the length of neurites extended by differentiated RGC-5s, concomitant with increased expression of NF-160 and PGP9.5, but not Brn-3c, Thy1.2 or Tau. TGF-beta 1 also decreased RGC-5 cell apoptosis in serum-free medium. p38 Barasertib phosphorylation, but not smad2/3, JNK or ERK phosphorylation, was increased in TGF-beta 1 treated cells. Specific inhibition of p38 signaling reversed TGF-beta 1 induced neurite growth. Conclusions. These findings demonstrate the induction of RGC-5 cell differentiation by HNPE-derived CM and illustrate a role for TGF-beta 1 in maintaining RGC-5 cell survival and promoting neurite outgrowth through p38 MAPK. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published
by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Pre-scrotal orchiopexy is emerging as an alternative approach for cryptorchid testes that can be preoperatively mobilized into the scrotum. We present our 3-year pre-scrotal orchiopexy series for all palpable cryptorchid testes regardless of their mobility into the scrotum preoperatively.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent pre-scrotal orchiopexy during a 3-year period. Data collected included preoperative Lactose synthase and postoperative testicular position, mobility of the testis into the scrotum preoperatively or with the patient under general anesthesia, patency of processus vaginalis, operative times and complications.
Results: A total of 88 cryptorchid testes were treated using single pre-scrotal incision orchiopexy. Mean patient age was 4.9 years. Of the testes 74 (84.1%) could be milked down to the scrotum preoperatively and 14 (15.9%) could not. Of the 14 immobile testes 8 were intracanalicular and 6 were in the superficial inguinal pouch.