Feeding behavior involves complex mechanisms that include the cal

Feeding behavior involves complex mechanisms that include the caloric demands of the body and hedonic and cognitive aspects [1], [32], [52] and [58]. Moreover, the behavior can be changed by a number of factors, such as nutrient availability and stress [26]. The hormones released in response to stress

may affect the appetite in different ways. Norepinephrine and Galunisertib ic50 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are appetite suppressants produced in response to stress [44], whereas cortisol stimulates the appetite during recovery from stress [100]. The CRH acts via CRH receptors in or near the PVN to inhibit food intake [57], although the mechanism is not understood completely. On the other hand, it has been suggested that leptin also influences CNS activity through the regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as NPY [5], [17] and [73]. Another possible modulator of stress-eating is leptin [18], [36] and [104], because this peptide exerts effects within the hypothalamus that regulate homeostatic food intake [49], [74] and [88] and in the ventral tegmental area that reduces dopamine neurotransmission and extinguishes the reward value of food [71]. Tomiyama et al. suggested that leptin acts as a modulator of stress-eating. When an individual has an adaptable, flexible allostatic stress response that is sensitive enough

to upregulate leptin secretion in response to stress, the individual may not fall prey to the urge to consume comfort foods. However, comfort food eating may be triggered more easily when the system does not respond, i.e., the leptin reactivity learn more is low or absent. In summary, this study implicates the circulating leptin reactivity the potential dampening of the known shift in food preference to high fat, sweet foods ALOX15 following exposure to stress. Furthermore, the data point toward leptin as a potential independent modulator of stress-eating. Leptin responses to

acute stress demonstrate a complex pattern, and the exact nature, cause and underlying mechanisms of the phenomenon remains to be determined [103]. Using the same restraint chronic stress model used in this study, previous studies have demonstrated an increase in sweet food intake [26] and [106] that was reversed by diazepam or midazolam [26]. On the other hand, variable chronic stress produced a decrease in sweet food intake that was reversed by fluoxetine [38], suggesting that the restraint chronic stress and variable chronic stress protocols represent anxiety and depression animal models, respectively. The restraint chronic stress protocol produced decreased serotonin levels in the hippocampus accompanied by an increased turnover of this neurotransmitter [106]. It has been proposed that cortisol and insulin stimulate the ingestion of energy-dense “comfort foods”, which protects the HPA axis from stress-induced dysfunction and the associated depression and anxiety [20].

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