For the case of mass transport by surface diffusion, the flux along the surface is given by (2) Figure 6 Cross-sectional schematic of the proposed mass
transport leading to thermally widened nanoholes shown in (c). In (a), the length of the arrows qualitatively represent the magnitude of material evaporation rates from various positions on the surface of a droplet etched nanohole. Similarly, in (b), the length of the arrows qualitatively represent the magnitude of diffusive flux across the surface. where M is the surface Akt inhibition mobility. Figure 6b schematically represents the flux driven by gradients in chemical potential, and it can be seen that this also favours a decreasing hole side-wall angle and hole depth in agreement with the morphology in Figure 6c. Although anisotropic surface GW2580 mw energy must also play an important role in the evolving morphology, this simple model of surface mass transport is qualitatively consistent with the general form of thermally widened holes, observed experimentally. We therefore propose that long-time annealing a hole of a given size prepared by LDE will produce a final morphology which is approximately independent
of annealing temperature (within the range studied) as the diameter, depth and side facet angles associated with the hole saturate with time (Figure 5). Although this might be consistent with our simple Nec-1s model of surface evolution for shallow surface profiles, evidence of faceting in Figure 5a suggests that surface energy anisotropy may also play a role in suppressing the hole morphology time evolution. To study the influence of the process temperature on the widened holes, we have fabricated two additional samples Endonuclease both with t a= 1,800 s. For the first sample, a temperature of 650℃ was applied during droplet deposition and 670℃ during
annealing. This sample has large holes with average diameter of 900 nm and average depth of 28 nm, which is in agreement with the samples fabricated at 650℃ and t a≥ 1,800 s shown in Figure 5b,c. This demonstrates that an elevated temperature during annealing alone does not modify the hole size. On the other hand, a sample fabricated at a temperature of 670℃ during both droplet deposition and annealing shows significantly larger holes with average opening diameter of 1,270 nm, average depth of 40 nm and flat bottom plane with 300-nm diameter. This finding indicates that the size of the droplet etched holes influences the size of the large holes after thermal treatment. For deposition and annealing at T = 650℃, droplet etched holes have a depth of 68 nm (Figure 2d). After 1,800-s long-time annealing, the depth is reduced to 35 nm, which is approximately half. For T = 670℃, droplet etched holes of about 80-nm depth are expected (Figure 2d). Here, the long-time annealing also approximately halves the depth. The combined droplet/thermal etching process can, in principle, be integrated with heteroepitaxy.