There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and P

There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTE and PME were associated with deficits in visual-motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE. PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures CDK inhibitor of performance on the BCT. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study identified structural changes in the caudate nucleus in offspring of mothers who drank moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. In addition, the effect of duration of alcohol use

during pregnancy was assessed. Young adults were recruited from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Three groups were evaluated: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) during all three trimesters (3T), PAE during the first trimester only (1T), and controls with no PAE (0T). Magnetic resonance images were processed using the automated labeling pathway technique. Volume was measured as the number (gray + white) and relative percentage (caudate count/whole brain count x 100) of voxels. Asymmetry was calculated by subtracting the caudate volume on the left from

the right and dividing by the total (L-R/L+R). Data analyses controlled for gender, handedness, and prenatal tobacco and marijuana exposures. There were no significant Brigatinib differences between the groups for whole brain, left, or right volumes. There was a dose-response effect across the three exposure groups both in terms of magnitude and direction of asymmetry. In the 3T group, the left caudate was larger relative to the right caudate compared to the 0T group. The average magnitude of caudate asymmetry for the 1T group was intermediate between the 0T and 3T groups. Subtle anatomical changes in the caudate are detected at the moderate end of the spectrum of prenatal alcohol exposure. (C) 2010 Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with alterations in arousal regulation in response to stress find more in young children. However, relations between cocaine exposure and stress response in adolescence have not been examined. We examined salivary cortisol, self-reported emotion, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 49 prenatally cocaine and other drug exposed (PCE) and 33 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) adolescents. PCE adolescents had higher cortisol levels before and after stress exposure than NCE adolescents. PCE girls showed an elevated anxiety response to stress (compared to NCE girls) and PCE boys showed a dampened diastolic BP response (compared to NCE boys). Girls showed higher anger response and lower pre-stress systolic BP than boys.

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