They found that all three groups had a reduction in depressive s

They found that all three groups had a reduction in depressive symptoms, with exercise showing a slightly greater benefit. Two studies found antidepressant effects of progressive resistance training in older adults with depression. Singh and colleagues studied the effects of progressive resistance training

(PRT) on depressed adults 60 years and older Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with a mean (SD) age of 71.3 (1.2).55 Over 10 weeks compared with an attention-control group, PRT was associated with an improvement in the measures of depressive symptoms, quality of life, social functioning, and strength. In a follow-up study, Singh and colleagues found that higher-intensity PRT was more effective than low-intensity PRT on depression in older

adults.56 These studies support the argument that exercise has antidepressant effects in older adults, yet the mechanism of action Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical remains unclear. The studies are careful to note the potential for the antidepressant effects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of expectation and attention in research participation as well as for socialization when engaging in group exercises.51 Further, investigators have also suggested the effects of increased self-efficacy, a sense of mastery, positive thoughts, distraction from negative thoughts, and enhanced self-concept.59 However, GDC-0068 research buy biological mechanisms related to overall brain health are also likely related to the mood elevating properties of exercise. These mechanisms, described earlier, include enhanced gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and hippocampal brain areas,

elevated functioning of brain circuits involved in mood and emotional function such as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical subregions of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, and improvements in functional connectivity of the default-mode network. In addition, it is also likely that exercise is having a pleiotropic effect on molecular systems related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic neurotransmission, immune click here function, and BDNF (Figure 1). 60,61 However, these biological mechanisms of exercise have not yet been carefully studied in older adults with depression. The role that changes in morphology and function could have on mitigating depressive symptoms remains speculative at this time. Figure 1. A schematic representation of the general path by which cognitive function and mood are improved by physical activity, it could be hypothesized that improvements in cognitive function mediate the improvements in mood or that improvements in mood mediate … Conclusions and future directions In this review we have briefly summarized the expansive and ever-growing literature on the effects of physical activity on brain health and plasticity.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>