To set up a system involving cooperation with primary care physic

To set up a system involving cooperation with primary care physicians and comedical staff in order to promote CKD management efficiently.   (3) To advertise the importance of CKD to citizens, patients, medical professionals, and government, and ensure that this is reflected in health policy.   (4) To

exchange useful knowledge with the international CKD community.”
“CKD brings about renal anemia. Successful treatment of MK-2206 order Anemia may suppress decline of kidney function. The target level of renal anemia therapy is Hb 10–12 g/dL. In management of anemia in CKD, evaluation of iron deficiency and appropriate iron supply are important. Renal anemia in CKD Principally renal anemia is normocytic normochromic. Disorders of hematopoiesis lead to relative reduction in the number of reticulocytes. Renal anemia is caused mainly by impaired production of erythropoietin by the kidney and partly by uremic toxin. In renal anemia, erythropoietin selleck chemical concentration remains within normal or lower range, but its measurement is not essential for diagnosis. Renal anemia progresses so slowly that symptoms are usually not apparent. In CKD stages 3–5, the existence of anemia is periodically examined. Other causes of anemia in CKD

Anemia associated with CKD is most likely renal anemia, but differential diagnosis for other diseases is to be considered. In the presence of anemia in CKD stage 1–3, first of all, causative diseases other than renal anemia such as gastrointestinal Doramapimod bleeding are examined. Treatment of anemia protects the heart and kidney Renal anemia is involved in progression of kidney dysfunction. Improvement of anemia by recombinant human erythropoietin agents (rHuEPO) was shown to suppress progression of kidney dysfunction (Fig. 21-1). Fig. 21-1 Effect of Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) erythropoietin on renal survival.

Quoted, with modification, from: Kuriyama S et al. Nephron, 1997;77:176–185 Anemia is an exacerbating factor for heart failure, and treatment of anemia is beneficial for life expectancy. CVD is often associated with anemia, and treatment of anemia improves prognosis of CVD. The target level of anemia The K/DOQI guidelines state that, in dialysis and nondialysis patients with CKD receiving rHuEPO therapy, the selected Hb target should generally be in the range 11.0–12.0 g/dL. In Japan, epoetin alfa or beta is administrated subcutaneously at initial dosage of 6,000 IU per injection per week until the target Hb level, followed by maintenance dosage of 6,000–12,000 IU per injection per 2 weeks. Upper limit of rHuEPO use approved by the health insurance system in Japan is 6,000–12,000 IU per 2 weeks, which sometimes fails to maintain Hb value above 11 g/dL. The health insurance system in Japan requires that the target of anemia treatment with rHuEPO be around 10 g/dL (or 30% in hematocrit level). Physicians are required to be careful not to raise Hb level above 12 g/dL (or 36% in hematocrit level).

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