Although bacterial TFs can recognize a specific DNA site in the genomic background, eukaryotic TFs exhibit widespread, nonfunctional binding and require clustering of sites to achieve specificity. We find support for this mechanism in a range of experimental
studies and in our evolutionary analysis of DNA-binding domains. Our systematic characterization of binding motifs provides a quantitative assessment of the differences in transcription check details regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.”
“Non-gel-based quantitative proteomics technology was used to profile protein expression differences when Fusarium graminearum was induced to produce trichothecenes in vitro. As F. graminearum synthesizes and secretes trichothecenes early in the cereal host invasion process, we hypothesized that proteins contributing to infection would also be induced under Temsirolimus supplier conditions favouring mycotoxin synthesis. Protein samples were extracted from three biological replicates of a time course study and subjected to iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) analysis. Statistical analysis of a filtered dataset of 435 proteins revealed 130 F. graminearum proteins that exhibited significant changes in expression, of which 72 were upregulated relative to their level at the initial phase of the time course. There was good agreement between
upregulated proteins identified by 2-D PAGE/MS/MS and iTRAQ. RT-PCR and northern hybridization confirmed that genes encoding proteins which were upregulated based on iTRAQ were also transcriptionally active under mycotoxin producing conditions. Numerous candidate pathogenicity proteins were identified using this technique. These will provide leads in the search for mechanisms Palmatine and markers of host invasion and novel antifungal targets.”
“Pavlov (1927/1960) reported that
following the conditioning of several stimuli, extinction of one conditioned stimulus (CS) attenuated responding to others that had not undergone direct extinction. However, this secondary extinction effect has not been widely replicated in the contemporary literature. In three conditioned suppression experiments with rats, we further explored the phenomenon. In Experiment 1, we asked whether secondary extinction is more likely to occur with target CSs that have themselves undergone some prior extinction. A robust secondary extinction effect was obtained with a nonextinguished target CS. Experiment 2 showed that extinction of one CS was sufficient to reduce renewal of a second CS when it was tested in a neutral (nonextinction) context. In Experiment 3, secondary extinction was observed in groups that initially received intermixed conditioning trials with the target and nontarget CSs, but not in groups that received conditioning of the two CSs in separate sessions. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that CSs must be associated with a common temporal context during conditioning for secondary extinction to occur.