The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined trea

The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine increased both bradycardiac and tachycardiac responses of the baroreflex. Cocaine-evoked baroreflex changes were totally reversed after BNST inactivation. However, BNST inhibition in animals subjected to combined treatment with cocaine and testosterone reversed only the increase in reflex tachycardia, whereas facilitation of reflex bradycardia was not affected by local BNST treatment

with CoCl2. In conclusion, the present study provides the first direct evidence that the BNST play a role in cardiovascular changes associated with drug abuse. Our findings suggest that alterations in cardiovascular function following subchronic exposure to cocaine are mediated by neural plasticity in the BNST. The single treatment with cocaine and the combined administration of testosterone and cocaine EPZ004777 supplier had similar effects AG-120 mw on baroreflex activity, however the association with testosterone inhibited cocaine-induced changes in the BNST control of reflex bradycardia. Testosterone-induced cardiovascular changes seem to be independent

of the BNST. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To clarify the relationships between marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas (WM/LPLs), immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGHV) features were analyzed and the occurrence

of MYD88 L265P mutations was identified in a series of 123 patients: 53 MZLs from the spleen (SMZLs), 11 from lymph nodes (NMZLs), 28 mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) lymphomas and 31 WM/LPLs. SMZLs were characterized by overrepresentation of IGHV1-2 gene rearrangements with a canonical motif, without selection pressure SSR128129E and with long CDR3 segments. NMZLs had increased frequencies of IGHV3 genes. The IGHV gene was unmutated in most cases, often with long CDR3 segments. MALT lymphomas were usually associated with a mutated IGHV gene, but with the absence of selection pressure. WM/LPLs were associated with an IGHV3-23 overrepresentation and high IGHV mutation rate, with features of selection pressure and short CDR3 segments. MYD88 L265P mutations were almost restricted exclusively to WM/LPL patients. Taken all diagnoses together, all patients with MYD88 L265P mutations had an immunoglobulin M peak and almost all patients except one had bone marrow infiltration. These results demonstrate that the history of antigen exposure of the four entities studied was different and MYD88 L265P was specifically associated with WM/LPLs. WM/LPL may thus be functionally associated with constitutive nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Leukemia (2013) 27, 183-189; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.257″
“Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous group of disorders both genotypically and phenotypically.

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