This study focuses on the hydrolysis of maltose with immobilized

This study focuses on the hydrolysis of maltose with immobilized glucoamylase on Eupergit (R) C and CM Sepharose. CM Sepharose exhibited a higher protein adsorption capacity,

49.35 +/- 1.43 mg/g, and was thus selected as carrier for the immobilization of glucoamylase. The optimal AZD5363 research buy reaction temperature and reaction pH of the immobilized glucoamylase for maltose hydrolysis were identified as 40 degrees C and 4.0, respectively. Under such conditions, the unreacted maltose in the product stream of trehalose synthase-catalyzed reaction was completely converted to glucose within 35 min, without detectable trehalose degradation. The conversion of maltose to glucose could be maintained at 0.92 even LDK378 purchase after 80 cycles in repeated-batch operations. It was also demonstrated that glucose thus generated could be readily oxidized into gluconic acid, which can be easily separated from

trehalose. We thus believe the proposed process of maltose hydrolysis with immobilized glucoamylase, in conjunction with trehalose synthase-catalyzed isomerization and glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation, is promising for the production and purification of trehalose on industrial scales. (c) 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog.29;83-90, 2013″
“Background: Prisoners have extremely high rates of smoking with rates 3-4 times higher than the general community. Many prisoners have used heroin. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of heroin use Blasticidin S supplier on smoking cessation and the social determinants of health among prisoners.\n\nMethods: Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component

smoking cessation intervention involving 425 Australian male prisoners. Inmates who, prior to imprisonment, used heroin regularly were compared to those who did not use heroin regularly. Self-reported smoking status was validated at baseline and each follow-up by measuring carbon monoxide levels. Readings exceeding 10 ppm were defined as indicating current smoking.\n\nResults: Over half (56.5%) of the participants had ever used heroin while 37.7% regularly (daily or almost daily) used heroin in the year prior to entering prison. Prisoners who regularly used heroin had significantly worse social determinants of health and smoking behaviours, including lower educational attainment, more frequent incarceration and earlier initiation into smoking. Prisoners who regularly used heroin also used and injected other drugs significantly more frequently. At 12-month follow-up, the smoking cessation of prisoners who had regularly used heroin was also significantly lower than prisoners who did not regularly use heroin, a finding confirmed by logistic regression.

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